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Case Studies

Promoting defence reform through training schools in Africa

Context

The security forces have a crucial role to play in addressing the security challenges in many African countries. It is important that this role is carried out in accordance with the rule of law and that the forces concerned are aware of their democratic duties and obligations. Training for African security forces needs to be adapted to the specificities and needs of each country if it is to be effective.

Entry point

Recognising that need to adapt, and consequently the need to develop the existing training system, France helped establish and has supported a network of Regionally Oriented National Schools (ENVR, Ecoles Nationales à Vocation Régionale) in francophone African countries since the 1990s. The ENVR are managed on the basis of a close partnership between the host country and France. They offer high levels of training and have a strict selection procedure.

Lessons learned

Importance of the partnership approach — The partner countries and France jointly develop the management and training modalities, and training is conducted jointly by French and African instructors. The ENVR now receive support from other donor countries, and this multilateral co-operation is helping develop the ENVR network.

Breadth of training offered is a strength — The ENVR offer 49 different training courses, which allows them to respond to a large spectrum of needs. Training is organised in four main areas: general training for African sergeants, corporals and officers; training on peace support (for example, peacekeeping and de-mining); specific training (for example, logistics, health and aeronautics); and security training.

Flexibility is important — The network needs to be sufficiently flexible to respond to the changing political and security context. For example, four schools situated in Cote d’Ivoire had to be closed in 2002 because of the worsening Ivorian crisis. In June 2003 the peacekeeping school was transferred to Koulikoro, in Mali, where its training courses have continued.

Impact

Since 1998, the French Ministry for Foreign Affairs has contributed to the establishment and functioning of 17 ENVR in eight Western and Central African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Gabon, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo). Each year, on average 1 200 interns from over 30 African countries are trained through the network. The ENVR contributes to the development of a democratic culture and the respect of human rights in African military forces. Moreover, the joint training of members of different armed forces promotes exchanges and a better understanding of the different African military cultures.

Further Resources

case study

Creating a National Dialogue to Prevent Future Conflict in Guinea-Bissau

Context

Since the civil war of 1998-1999, Guinea-Bissau has experienced reoccurring cycles of violent conflict. The continued struggle for power between the military and political elite has been deeply divisive and has further polarised different agendas and interests, proving the necessity for a restructuring of the security sector with an innovative approach to peacebuilding.

At the request of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS, now renamed UNIOGBIS), Interpeace partnered with local organisation Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa (INEP) in 2005 to investigate the situation in the country and evaluate the potential for creating a local initiative targeted to promote and collaborate for sustainable peace. As a result of this research, the programme Voz di Paz was created in 2007 with a mandate to assist in creating and broadening a dialogue about the key obstacles hindering peace in the country and supporting local, national and regional actors to participate in the prevention of future conflict. In 2010 it became its own independent local organisation.

Entry point

In light of the context, it was recognized by the community that ongoing projects and efforts at resolving the issues at hand were not effective. Two main reasons for this were identified: the root causes were not being tackled and a big divide between levels of society existed, which was not conducive to creating trust between them.

Therefore, the Voz di Paz initiative consulted the population and all concerned actors and found four basic principles that were key to break the cycles of failed projects targeting a reform of the security and defence sector:

  1. Provide access to information about SSR;
  2. improve the dialogue between the Security forces and the population;
  3. promote the wide-spread participation of the Security forces in shaping the final structure of the reform;
  4. provide feedback to the institutional actors of the reform.

This vision of inclusiveness and participation was used in both the ‘peace-mapping phase’ and the ‘formulation of peace visions and solution phase.’ By setting up Regional Spaces of Dialogue (RSD), where leaders in the communities acted as facilitators and created a space that encouraged debate about various issues, the program created a culture of dialogue to build bridges between all stakeholders, such as citizens, structured constituencies, organisations, and the military. These relieved many tensions throughout the country as the population began to work together to solve their issues. Together, the communities came up with four of the most important issues that needed to be addressed: ineffective state institutions and bad governance, poverty, poor administration of justice, and tribalism.

Lessons identified

Participatory Action Research – has proven to be effective in building mutual understanding and trust between various groups in society and the security sector and it allows all stakeholders to get a stronger grasp of the different needs of the population. It also empowers citizens since it makes them feel included and significant because it gives them agency in determining their own destiny, as well as a deeper understanding of the necessary actions and actors relevant for change. This adds to the sustainable aspect of the program because people are then motivated to continue with it even after the project is over.

Highest Ranking Officials – A challenge encountered was maintaining the extensive involvement of the highest ranks of the security sector, including generals, the police, political parties and the business sector. In the evaluation of the Voz di Paz/Interpeace programme it was concluded that it is imperative to foster a relationship with this network in order to have a consequential influence in conflict mediation in this sphere.

Inclusiveness and Status of Neutrality – Even though they are often difficult to maintain in certain aspects of the implementation process, the two were identified as key characteristics of the program that allowed it to be as successful as it has been.

Impact

The program has thrived in developing a nationwide debate about the causes of conflict and, simultaneously, using this strategy to promote dialogue as a non-violent tool for the negotiation of multiple stakeholders’ interests. In 2010, about 85% of the population was familiar with the program and the national debates, which is in part due to the clever use of the media, especially radio broadcasts, to disseminate the information.

Furthermore, one of the most successful aspects of Voz di Paz has been the set up of the regional permanent structures, the RSDs, since they have served as role models in the community for nonviolence and good governance through the collaboration based on trust between the people and the local state representatives. Through the use of a brochure, they have also managed to circulate information about SSR and explain how it can be used as an opportunity for change. Lastly, Voz di Paz has already had an effect on some of the political-military elite by inspiring the Commission of National Conference for Reconciliation to use a similar inclusive-approach for the National Conference.

Selected Resources

Consultancy on the Evaluation of the INTERPEACE Voz di Paz Programme in Guinea-Bissau (2009-2010), Annette Englert, 2011.

Projecto “Voz di Paz” lança livro intitulado “Autarquias na Guiné-Bissau a visão dos Cidadãos”, GBissau.com, 2015.

Roots of Conflicts in Guinea-Bissau: The voice of the people, Voz di Paz, 2010.

case study

"Chain of payments" project within the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC)

Context

From the height of the civil war in 1998 until 2009, there were over 5.4 million deaths in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), making it one of the most deadly and protracted conflicts since the end of the Second World War.[1] The DRC has persistently ranked amongst the worst performing countries in the UNDP Human Development report rankings.[2] One of the lingering and most prominent causes of insecurity and threats to the civilian population directly stemmed from the poorly managed, ineffective and unaccountable armed groups, including both legitimate and illegitimate armed groups. Following the signature of the Sun City Agreement in 2002 and the subsequent creation of the The Forces Armées de la Republique Democratique du Congo (FARDC), the armed forces continued to frequently cited  for wide spread human rights abuses. In various reports[3], no meaningful institution protecting human rights could surpass the threat posed by DRC’s state security forces to its own citizens. Reform of the security sector institutions was continuously neglected leading up to the civil war and immediately thereafter, leading to poor control and management, low troop morale, and high incidence of political interference and systemic corruption.

As a response, in 2005 the EU deployed the EUSEC RD CONGO mission, which was launched to support the Congolese Government and security institutions to set up effective institutions that were capable of guaranteeing the security of the Congolese people. An underlying aim of the EU support was to ensure that such security institutions were respecting democratic standards, human rights and the rule of law, as well as the principles of good governance. Initially, the EU deployed advisors and experts were embedded into various departments and administration in the security sector institutions. The small size of the EUSEC mission did not allow for large scale engagements at operational level and a strategic advisory niche was preferred that focused on information and data collection capacity. In parallel, MONUSCO provided most of the operational level support.[4]

Entry Point

Long-standing perceptions of impunity by FARDC and rebel groups, alongside the need to integrate rebel groups into the FARDC as part of the peace process, placed security sector governance and effective resource management amongst the initial EU priorities for supporting SSR in DRC. At the onset of the EUSEC mission an operational audit was conducted as a means of designing the future work programme of the mission. The assessment identified poor working and living conditions experienced by troops, as well as a limited centralised information collection system, as a key weakness influencing the effectiveness of the FARDC. It is notable that the assessment did not highlight or assess governance issues.[5] Amongst the proposals of the assessment was a need to conduct a census of troops as an entry-point for jump starting a more holistic SSR process and to address the issues of non-payment or poor payment of salaries to troops, which was a contributing factor for the poor state of the FARDC. The operational audit became a key document shaping the overall reform of the armed forces.

Implementation/Impact

From the onset the census uncovered over 70,000 ghost soldiers (eg. soldiers who were receiving salary but were not in active duty or registered or simply did not exist). In parallel, the issuance of biometric IDs to soldiers of integrated brigades allowed for a documentation of individual soldiers. The issuance of IDs, census and a centralised salary payment process collectively allowed the separation of salary payments from the chain of command and helped to ensure that the central administration of the armed forces has a more realistic count of available manpower within the armed forces (120,000 soldiers instead of 190,000). The separation of salary payments from the chain of command helped to reduce the incidence of cases whereby senior officers were withholding pay or taking a percentage of salaries from lower ranked soldiers. Soldiers receiving even a limited salary were a visible and key impact for a relatively modest effort by EUSEC, especially compared to the large scale train and equip programmes of donor partners. The elimination of ghost workers from the payroll eventually allowed for salaries of troops to be raised using existing budget allocations previously allocated to ghost soldiers. In turn, this improved troop morale but also reduced the dependence of troops on illegal activities for subsistence.   

Lessons Identified

  • 1: One of the limitations of the EUSEC engagement was that it did not lead to regulatory or functional reforms in the short to medium term. The lack of additional reforms undermined the long-term impact of the EUSEC efforts. Eventually a narrow reform process of the payroll system and failure to address the underlying management/accountability deficits within the armed forces provided opportunities for senior officials to eventually circumvent the system related to salary payments by siphoning off other budget lines instead (e.g. food provisions).[6]
  • 2: The limited political engagement and political capacity of EUSEC restricted its ability to address the political impediments to reforming structures, management systems and accountability lines. In the DRC context the SSR process is heavily influenced, if not controlled, by the office of the President and a failure to engage politically meant that key issues related to human resource management and chain of command remain unaddressed.
  • 3: With programmes that have limited resources, focusing on high level governance issues can provide a niche for the programme and raise its profile and visibility.

Selected resources

EU Mission to provide advice and assistance for security sector reform in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the area of defence”; European Union - Common Security and Defence Policy, July 2015

EU Security Sector Reform Advisory Mission to the DR Congo Armed Forces”; European Union - Common Security and Defence Policy, April 2014

EU Mission to provide advice and assistance for security sector reform in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the area of defence”; European Union - Common Security and Defence Policy, December 2012

EU Mission to provide advice on and assistance with security sector reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo”; European Union - European Security and Defence Policy, July 2009

The Democratic Republic of Congo: Taking a Stand on Security Sector Reform (2012) 

Footnotes[1] DCAF Yearbook 2009, p.89 [2] Human Development Report 2006[3] Can the DRC army stop abusing human rights?[4] DCAF Yearbook 2009, p.102[5] Narrowing the Gap between Theory and Practice, DCAF (2011) [6] DCAF Annual Report 2009, p.111
case study

Tools

Tool 1 : Political Leadership and National Ownership of Security Sector Reform Processes

Tool 1 of the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa by DCAF addresses political will and national ownership, fundamental requirements of SSR processes.

Without the strong political commitment of national authorities, SSR will fail, regardless of the material resources and technical expertise invested into it. SSR must be home-grown, designed to meet country-specific needs, and led by national stakeholders who take full responsibility for it. For SSR to produce sustainable results, it is also essential to ensure the active involvement of a critical mass of citizens - men and women - from all strata of society in the definition and implementation of a reform agenda that reflects a shared vision of security. Unless it relies on an inclusively defined and widely shared vision of security, SSR cannot succeed.

Acknowledging the challenges that may arise in the process of operationalising these principles, Tool 1 offers practical guidance on how to reinforce national ownership and leadership while defining an inclusive, national vision of security as a basis for a security sector reform. It provides an overview of potential entry points for SSR in the broader framework of national governance in a West African setting. It also suggests how to institutionalise the national leadership and coordination of an SSR process, including through strategic communication.

The Tool is primarily intended for policy and other strategic decision makers, government officials involved in security sector governance, national SSR advisers and practitioners. It will also provide members of parliament, other oversight institutions, civil society organisations and development partners with an overview of the responsibilities of the executive in SSR and how to uphold national ownership throughout the process.

For more information on the tool Political Leadership and National Ownership of Security Sector Reform Processes, kindly follow the link to the DCAF website.

Follow the links to access the other documents in the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa: 

Tool 2: Security Sector Reform Programming

Tool 4: Effective Management of External Support to Security Sector Reform

Tool 6: Civil Society Involvement in Security Sector Reform and Governance

The publication is also available in français and português.

Tool

Tool 2 : Security Sector Reform Programming

The conduct of an SSR process requires translating a political, national vision of security into an operational programme and defining the different concrete actions needed to generate the desired societal change and improve security for all. SSR programming provides tools both to determine the nature of the change sought in the functioning of the security sector and to plan implementation in a structured manner that is measurable over time.

Tool 2 of the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa addresses the successive programming steps that enable the development and rolling out of a context-relevant SSR programme. These steps range from an initial needs assessment to the setting up of coordination mechanisms aimed at ensuring overall coherence of national SSR efforts. The Tool offers practical advice for prioritising and sequencing reform actions, budgeting the programme and mobilising the resources necessary for its implementation, establishing viable and efficient management mechanisms, coordinating national and international actors involved in the implementation of the programme and developing a communication strategy to support transparency and sustain national ownership.

For more information on Tool 2 : Security Sector Reform Programming, kindly follow the link to the DCAF website.

Follow the links to access the other documents in the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa: 

Tool 1: Political Leadership and National Ownership of Security Sector Reform Processes

Tool 4: Effective Management of External Support to Security Sector Reform

Tool 6: Civil Society Involvement in Security Sector Reform and Governance

This publication is also available in français and português.

Tool

Ferramenta 1 : Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta ferramenta 1 « Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança », parte da « Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental », fornece orientações práticas para as autoridades nacionais da África Ocidental sobre como abordar a RSS de uma forma que demonstre liderança e garanta uma apropriação nacional inclusiva. Ressalva a importância da vontade política na formulação de políticas relacionadas com o sector de segurança, a necessidade de envolver actores não-estatais não só na fase inicial, mas também durante todo o processo de reforma, e a necessidade de articular a RSS com outras políticas e reformas à escala nacional. A ferramenta também se debruça sobre o papel desempenhado pela CEDEAO, que apoia os estados-membros na construção de processos de reforma endógenos. Aborda igualmente os desafios práticos que as autoridades nacionais poderão vir a enfrentar na concepção e implementação de processos de RSS, propondo também soluções para enfrentá-los.

A ferramenta pretende ser um recurso para os responsáveis pela tomada de decisões estratégicas, funcionários governamentais, consultores nacionais e outros profissionais de RSS. Também disponibilizará aos membros do parlamento, a outras instituições de supervisão, às organizações da sociedade civil (OSC) e aos parceiros de desenvolvimento uma visão geral das responsabilidades que o poder executivo tem na RSS e sobre como garantir a apropriação nacional ao longo do processo.

Para maiores informações sobre a Ferramenta 1 : Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança, siga o link para o website do DCAF.

Por favor, siga o link para ter acesso às outros documentos da Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental: 

Ferramenta 2 : Programação da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 4 : Gestão Eficaz do Apoio Externo à Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 6 : Envolvimento da Sociedade Civil na Governação e Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta é a versão em Português da publicação. It is also available in English et disponible en français.

Tool

Videos

African Union assistance in Security Sector Reform

In this short 3 minute clip, Dr Tarek Sharif, Head of the Defence and Security Division of the Peace and Security department of the African Union, talks about the role the AU plays in assisting its members to carry our reform of their security sectors.

video

Security Sector Reform and Local Ownership

Security Sector Reform and Local Ownership, an interview with Erwin van Veen, who at the time of recording (October 2012) was a Policy Analyst on Peace and Security at OECD-INCAF. Currently, Mr van Veen is a Senior Research Fellow at Clingendael's Conflict Research Unit, specialising in the use of armed violence, the influence of globalisation on conflict and fragility and the political economy of fragile environments, http://www.clingendael.nl.

video

The Economic Links Between Security Sector Reform and Development

Interview with Gabriel Negatu, Regional Director at the East Africa Resource Centre at the African Development Bank (AfDB). Mr Negatu looks at the overlap between economic development good security and the need for economic prospects for effective reintegration of former combatants or returning refugees.

"DDR is easier said than done... "The two D's are much easier than the last R."

video

Gender in SSR

Stephen Jackson, Chief of Staff at the UN Office in Burundi, discusses the role gender plays in SSR and considers why a gender component is not a standard part of all SSR programmes.

"Gender often falls low down the list in terms of outcomes in a security sector reform process..... it's not as if that agenda is enormously well advanced in a lot of the partners countries, let's be honest." Stephen Jackson

Quote author
video

Nicole Ball : democratic governance and SRR

Nicole Ball is a Senior Fellow at the Centre for International Policy (CIP), a member of the DCAF Advisory Board and a Strategic Adviser to ISSAT. In this interview recorded by ISSAT during the Africa Forum on SSR in November 2014, she urges to refocus on democratic governance issues, as well as on several key gaps that still need to be bridged within SSR programmes designed by external actors. She gives several recommendations, including on the role of public finance management in strengthening oversight, by taking into account the political nature of it for better security sector governance.

video

Awino Okech: strengthening accountability and security challenges in Kenya

Awino Okech is a SSR and Gender Expert for the African Security Sector Network (ASSN). In an interview conducted by ISSAT, she addresses a wide range of security issues, such as: the need for a space for civilian oversight mechanisms; the challenges related to the increasing role of non-state actors in the provision of security; the ways in which the lack of capacity of oversight mechanisms and the threat of terrorism are dealt with in Kenya; and the prospects for building capacity in African Union member countries. 

video

Ambassador Rice Discusses Security Sector Reform in Africa

Ambassador Susan E. Rice, US Permanent Representative to the United Nations, discusses security sector reform in Africa at the United Nations in New York, NY, October 12, 2011. [Go to video.state.gov for more video and text transcript.]

video

Quel rôle des femmes dans le processus de paix et de sécurité ?

Les pays touchés par les conflits en Afrique sont nombreux. Souvent victimes des tensions dans leur pays respectif, les femmes continuent pourtant de jouer un rôle déterminant dans les changements en cours. Comment s’y emploient-elles ? La troisième et dernière partie de POLITITIA du 8 mars 2017 nous en dit davantage.

video

Africa's Evolving Security Landscape

Dr. Raymond Gilpin examines the underlying trends affecting security in Africa, including demography, climate, migration, urbanization, and how they affect issues ranging from resource competition to transnational crime to state-citizen relations. He suggests areas of opportunity for legislators, and offers a roadmap for effecting change.

video

Podcasts

Book Talk 14 – International Responses to Mass Atrocities in Africa: Responsibility to Protect, Prosecute, and Palliate

In this episode of the ACUNS Book Talks Podcast series, Kurt Mills, Senior Lecturer in International Human Rights at the School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Glasgow, joins co-host Alistair Edgar to discuss his latest publication, International Responses to Mass Atrocities in Africa, from the University of Pennsylvania Press. Kurt explains his general interest in the subject of human rights, and increasingly the nexus of human rights and international justice related to situations of mass atrocity crimes. Examining four case studies – Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, and Darfur – he addresses his own variant of ‘R2P’, in this case ‘R2P3’ (the responsibilities to protect, prosecute, and palliate), and discusses the dilemmas that these responsibilities can create as they may not always be complementary. The podcast concludes with Mills’ thoughts on what his analysis implies for the roles and responsibilities of states, humanitarian actors, and the United Nations.

For more details about the book follow this link here.

Podcast

High Level Panel Session on SSR (East Africa) : Lessons from the Country Case Studies (Session 5: 03-10-12)

Moderator: Professor Eboe Hutchful, Chair of the African Security Sector Network (ASSN)

Speakers:
Ambassador Antoine Ntamobwa, Director General for North American Affairs Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Burundi
Dr. Norman Mlambo, SSR Focal Point, African Union
Brigadier Kellie Conteh, UNMISS Advisor to the Minister of National Security, South Sudan

Podcast

Policy and Research Papers

Sahel State Political Violence in Comparative Perspective

Policy, media and academic attention on violence in the Sahel region has been widespread since the onset of the Arab Spring, and the escalating violence in recent months in Mali. This research explores the nature, patterns and dynamics of this violence in regional and national comparative perspective, contrasting divergent dynamics of violence both within and across the region. Data is drawn from the Armed Conflict Location & Event Dataset (ACLED), which facilitates analysis of both contemporary and historical patterns. Regional characteristics of Sahelian violence are highlighted, which underscore a relatively low level of violence in the region as a whole, with increases in conflict levels largely driven by the single case of Mali in recent months. Detailed analysis of specific groups and actor types reveal important intra-regional discrepancies which have been largely obscured by characterisations of a regional, trans-national crisis. Together, these observations point to the need to interrogate narratives of regional dynamics which may conceal important national and even sub-national variations and drivers of political violence.

Paper

Understanding Africa’s contemporary conflicts Origins, challenges and peacebuilding

How then do war-torn communities with reduced capacity set about their reconstruction and arrive at a situation of peace? In answering this question, this monograph is structured in three parts. The first part, consisting of two chapters, examines changing methodologies through which we can more accurately analyse and map violent conflict, its causes and effects. Th e second then consider conflict resolution and peacebuilding and the key challenges and obstacles, while the final part documents success stories in the reconstruction of sub-Saharan Africa through looking at various theoretical and contextual examples.

Paper

Democracy and the Chain of Command: A New Governance of Africa’s Security Sector

Serious political crises in Niger, Honduras, Turkey, Bangladesh, Guinea, Madagascar, Thailand, and Mauritania in recent years illustrate the continuing influence of security forces on the political trajectories of countries around the world. Examples of such instability are particularly recurrent in Africa. When Africa’s political crises turn into coups, armed insurrections, or tragic confrontations, the defense and security forces (DSF) are invariably key players. For many years, such military actions were justified as an established right of state sovereignty over domestic issues. Often, they were even recognized as such on the international level.

Paper

Security Sector Transformation in Africa

The eighth edition in DCAF’s Yearly Book series examines theconceptual and operational dimensions of Security Sector Transformation inAfrica. African knowledge and experience has contributed much to theevolution of the security sector reform (SSR) concept while Africa continuesto be the main arena for SSR programmes. Consequently, over the years,DCAF has actively sought to expand its knowledge base, policy researchfocus and operational activities on African security sector reform andgovernance issues. For these reasons it is therefore particularly appropriatethat DCAF focuses on this subject in 2010 – the 10th anniversary of thecreation of the DCAF foundation.

Paper

Security Sector Reform and Governance Processes in West Africa: From Concepts to Reality

In light of the rapidly changing and evolving security situation in West Africa, this paper analyses ECOWAS policy documents relating to SSR and highlights the challenges of translating norms to practice. It assesses ECOWAS’s concrete support to SSR processes in the region, both as a partner and as a leading actor and outlines challenges to overcome and opportunities to be seized by ECOWAS in its role in supporting SSR. Finally, it puts forward recommendations to key stakeholders on how a Regional Framework for Security Sector Reform and Governance could serve as a platform for SSR support and a tool for conflict prevention and sustainable development.

The paper can also be downloaded in English, French or Portuguese at https://www.dcaf.ch/security-sector-reform-and-governance-processes-west-africa-concepts-reality

Paper

Reforma e Governação do Setor de Segurança na África ocidental: Dos Conceitos à Realidade

À luz da rápida mutação e evolução da situação de segurança na África Ocidental, este artigo analisa as políticas da CEDEAO relativas à SSR e destaca os desafios de implementação das normas estabelecidas.  Avalia ainda o apoio concreto prestado pela CEDEAO aos processos de SSR na região, tanto do seu envolvimento como parceiro, ou como ator principal; enumera os desafios a superar e as oportunidades a aproveitar pela CEDEAO, no que concerne ao seu apoio à SSR; e apresenta recomendações aos principais interessados sobre a forma como um Quadro Regional para a Reforma e Governação do Setor da Segurança poderá servir de plataforma de apoio à SSR, e de ferramenta para a prevenção de conflitos e desenvolvimento sustentável.

Paper

Are the Millennium Development Goals proving counter-productive?

Published in the run up to the September 2010 UN Summit on the MDGs, this policy paper addresses the status as well as challenges to their implementation questioning their objectives and the apparent statu quo.

Paper

Security Sector Governance in Africa: A Handbook

The handbook has been produced by a collaborative effort among researchers and practitioners across Africa. It provides guidance on undertaking a process of security-sector transformation consistent with democratic governance principles and a human security agenda. It is primarily intended for security-sector practitioners both in the security organisations and among the civil authorities charged with managing and monitoring the activities of the security organisations. It is secondarily intended to assist policy makers, civil society, and those agencies that provide financial and technical support to efforts to strengthen security-sector governance in understanding the issues involved in a transformation process.

Paper

Le Mécanisme africain d’évaluation par les pairs : Un outil au service de la gouvernance

Le  MAEP est un instrument, au rayonnement continental, établi par et pour les États africains.  Il est destiné à évaluer les pratiques des États en matière de gouvernance, dans quatre domaines : la démocratie et la gouvernance politique, la gouvernance et la gestion économiques, la gouvernance d’entreprise et le développement socio-économique.

Cet article ce trouve sur le site du Groupe de recherche et d'information sur la paix et la sécurité. Pour y accéder, cliquez ici.

Paper

Security Sector Reform in North Africa: Why It's Not Happening

Popular discontent with the repressive nature of security institutions and security forces in North Africa was the precipitating cause of the uprisings that composed the Arab Spring. Across the region the security apparatus was structured to protect regimes from their people. In the aftermath of regime change, it was evident in all countries that reform of the security sector was more than symbolically important. But why has it been so difficult for regional states to reform their security institutions? Why are we still talking about the need to reform the security sectors in these countries? This article answers these questions.

To access the article, click here.

Paper

African Perspectives on Security Sector Reform, High-level Forum Report, New York, 14 May 2010

On 14 May 2010, the Permanent Missions of Nigeria and South Africa to the United Nations, with facilitation support from the United Nations SSR Unit, Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions, and with generous financial contribution from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations, co-hosted the High-level Forum on African Perspectives on SSR. The event brought together approximately 80 high-level participants from 55 Permanent Missions and 11 United Nations entities.

The High-Level Forum highlighted emerging trends and developments in the field of SSR, including its place within broader institutional reform, the role of intra-African SSR support, outsourcing and the role of private commercial security actors in supporting SSR and the significance of the African Union’s SSR Policy as an integral part the African Peace and Security Framework (APSA). 

The co-chairs’ statement, which is included herein, underscored that these developments are “significant for the success and sustainability of such reform processes moving forward but which, so far, have not featured adequately in the SSR policy agenda”. 

The High-Level Forum and co-chairs statement were informed by findings from the Experts-level Seminar on African Perspectives on SSR, which was held the previous day on 13 May. This event brought together representatives from 15 African Permanent Missions, the African Union SSR advisor and high-ranking officials from the Burundian National Defense Forces and the Embassy of the Netherlands in Bujumbura. The discussions, focused on three main themes: 1) national ownership; 2) coordination of SSR assistance; and 3) the regional dimensions of SSR. The discussions highlighted the following issues: 

On national ownership of SSR:  

  • “National ownership” is a contested concept that requires careful unpacking.
  • It consists above all of the ability of national actors to exercise political leadership of the process, including through the commitment of national resources to the process.

 On coordination of SSR assistance:  

  • Coordination and national ownership are intimately linked. Coordination should be the primary responsibility of the national authorities and is in itself a manifestation of ownership.
  • National authorities and donors often have different priorities. This underscores the need for national authorities to commit their own resources in order to make decisions independently. 

On the regional dimensions of SSR: 

  • There is a need to use regional mechanisms to encourage and support countries to undertake sustainable SSR. The African Peer Review Mechanism may be useful in this regard because it is African-led and provides considerable scope through which to consider SSR.
  • It is critical to recognize the challenges and limitations to regional approaches given that many neighbouring countries are in conflict or have a history of conflict, which underscores the importance of engagement at the international level. To provide the required support, the United Nations needs to speak with a coherent voice.
Paper

Maritime Security in the Gulf of Guinea

Drawing on the Africa Center’s decade of work on maritime security issues in Africa, ACSS, in consortium with interagency partners, has released the comprehensive, Gulf of Guinea Maritime Security and Criminal Justice Primer .

The waters surrounding the continent are vast depositories of natural resources. From fisheries to hydrocarbons, these resources generate valuable revenue to littoral African states. In addition, they are a source of food and employment for millions of Africans. The seas also serve to connect African countries to their neighbors and to the rest of the world. To realize the potential of this “blue economy,” African states must effectively deal with significant maritime security challenges including piracy, illegal fishing, illegal migration, arms trafficking, narco-trafficking, and marine pollution.

This publication on Maritime Security in the Gulf of Guinea therefore examines measures to strengthen sovereign control and collective security.

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Building constructive China-US cooperation on peace and security in Africa

Increasingly, external actors are involving themselves in Africa – engagement which is critical to African development, but which has potential either to increase security or further destabilise some of the continent’s already fragile countries. A cooperative rather than competitive approach between two key external actors, the US and China – based on common interests – would greatly enhance the conditions for peace and sustainable development in Africa, as well as providing each with direct benefits.

This briefing looks at obstacles to collaboration between China and the US, opportunities for cooperation, and provides recommendations to both on how the interests of African nations and these key actors can best be served, including:

  • Accept a broadened definition of security and focus on non-traditional security challenges and non-combat operations that offer opportunity without the connotation of military-military support or intervention
  • Prioritize African perspectives
  • Deepen mutual understanding and promotion of knowledge exchange in conflict-sensitive development and the management of conflict, crises, and risk in business sector involvement.

Find more information and download the full brief here.

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Why Term Limits Matter for Africa

In this blog post by Joseph Siegle, Africa has a problem of presidents not leaving office when it’s time to do so.  The latest illustration of this is the maneuvering of Burundi’s President Pierre Nkurunziza. After 10 years in office, he is attempting to stay on for a third five-year term – in contravention of Burundi’s constitution that limits presidents to two five-year terms.

Joseph Siegle, Director of Research of the Africa Center for Strategic Studies at the National Defense University in Washington, reflects on the impact of Presidents overriding their legitimate terms. 

Read the blog post

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Why the African Union needs to get policing right

The author of this article examines developments towards the inclusion of police reforms in peace support operations. She argues that getting policing right is at the heart of peace support operations, and therefore the African Union should sufficiently staff the policing department. In this light, the Police Strategic Support Group is a key actor, due to its role in promoting police, civilian and military cooperation.

Read this analysis here.

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African Perspectives on SSR

On 14 May 2010, the Permanent Missions of Nigeria and South Africa to the United Nations, with facilitation support from the United Nations SSR Unit, Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions, and with generous financial contribution from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations, co-hosted the High-level Forum on African Perspectives on SSR. The event brought together approximately 80 high-level participants from 55 Permanent Missions and 11 United Nations entities.

The High-Level Forum highlighted emerging trends and developments in the field of SSR, including its place within broader institutional reform, the role of intra-African SSR support, outsourcing and the role of private commercial security actors in supporting SSR and the significance of the African Union’s SSR Policy as an integral part the African Peace and Security Framework (APSA). The co-chairs’ statement, which is included herein, underscored that these developments are “significant for the success and sustainability of such reform processes moving forward but which, so far, have not featured adequately in the SSR policy agenda”.

The High-Level Forum and co-chairs statement were informed by findings from the Experts-level Seminar on African Perspectives on SSR, which was held the previous day on 13 May. This event brought together representatives from 15 African Permanent Missions, the African Union SSR advisor and high-ranking officials from the Burundian National Defense Forces and the Embassy of the Netherlands in Bujumbura. The discussions, focused on three main themes: 1) national ownership; 2) coordination of SSR assistance; and 3) the regional dimensions of SSR.

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Contrôle des transferts d'armes en Afrique subsaharienne: leçons pour la mise en oeuvre du Traité sur le commerce des armes (TCA)

Cette Note d'Analyse présente les principales conclusions et recommandations d'une étude menée dans dix pays d'Afrique francophone en vue d'identifier les défis posés par la mise en oeuvre du Traité sur le commerce des armes (TCA). Elle fait le point sur les forces et les faiblesses des systèmes de contrôle des transferts d'armes de ces pays et souligne les éléments de contexte essentiels. Enfin, elle recommande des stratégies pour renforcer ces systèmes grâce à des mécanismes de coopération et d'assistance internationales. 

Lire l'article en ligne sur le site du GRIP. 

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Violent Islamist extremism and terror in Africa

This paper presents an overview of large-scale violence by Islamist extremists in key African countries. It seeks to provide an overview of the evolution of the associated terrorism through quantitative and contextual analysis using various large datasets. 

The focus is on the development and links among countries experiencing the worst of this phenomenon, especially Algeria, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Mali, Nigeria and Somalia, as well as the impact of events in the Middle East on these African countries.

This paper on Violent Islamist extremism and terror in Africa is available to download now.

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Monitoring de la stabilité régionale dans le bassin sahélien et en Afrique de l’Ouest | Juillet à septembre 2015

Ce monitoring trimestriel, publié par le GRIP depuis 2011, est réalisé dans le cadre d’un projet intitulé "Contribution à l’amélioration de la sécurité humaine, à la prévention des conflits et au renforcement de l’état de droit en Afrique sub-saharienne". Il a pour but de suivre la situation sécuritaire en Afrique de l’Ouest avec un accent plus particulier sur le Burkina Faso, la Côte d’Ivoire, la Guinée, le Mali, le Niger et le Sénégal. Il se penche sur les questions de sécurité interne au sens large, les tensions régionales, la criminalité et les trafics transfrontaliers.

Lien vers le document: Monitoring de la stabilité régionale dans le bassin sahélien et en Afrique de l'Ouest 

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Promoting peace through the Sustainable Development Goals: What role for the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation?

Ahead of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) Summit in South Africa from 4-5 December 2015, Saferworld and the Southern African Liaison Office (SALO) have co-produced a briefing on the role of FOCAC in promoting peace through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Although implementation of the 2030 Agenda and its SDGs will be driven primarily through action at national level, existing global partnerships and initiatives such as FOCAC will need to be leveraged in order to support national level action.

Key findings from the briefing include:

  • China and Africa’s shared commitment to promoting African peace and security and their acceptance of peace in the 2030 Agenda form a strong basis for cooperation.
  • Given the many overlaps between the existing Action Plan and the SDGs, the next FOCAC Action Plan could be used as a framework to guide China’s support for implementation of the 2030 Agenda.
  • China and Africa should use this Summit as an opportunity to promote a more holistic and preventative approach to promoting peace in Africa in the next Action Plan.

Paper available here: Promoting peace through the Sustainable Development Goals: What role for the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation?

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The EU as a security actor in Africa

This new report provides an in-depth study of the role of the European Union as a security actor in Africa. It features analysis on ‘work currently being done on proposals for a new dedicated instrument – or a modification of the existing instruments – for capacity building in the security sector, as well as on a comprehensive EU strategic framework for the reform of the security sector.’ 

Full report: The EU as a security actor in Africa 

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Confronting Drugs, Crime, and Warfare in Africa

Insurgents, corruption, and weak governance have made Africa a hub for clandestine narcotics shipments to Europe. Drug profits have helped fuel the continent’s wars, including the bloodshed caused by al-Qaeda–linked militants. Better governance is the key to stopping this vicious trade, but several new direct actions by the United States can also help. 

Paper available here: Confronting Drugs, Crime, and Warfare in Africa

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Defense Institution Building in Africa - An Assessment

This report assesses U.S. efforts in defense institution building (DIB) in Africa and suggests possible improvements to planning and execution. It first defines DIB and reviews some best practices from DIB and security sector reform experiences. It also highlights how DIB activities serve U.S. official strategic guidance for Africa. The report then examines how DIB is currently planned and executed in Africa and describes the range of programs that are available to U.S. planners for that purpose. It also provides a structured approach to aid in the prioritization of such programs. The report then analyzes DIB efforts in two African nations — Liberia and Libya. Finally, it examines how other institutions and countries undertake DIB by taking a closer look at the DIB activities of DoD's regional centers, as well as the relatively extensive experience of two key U.S. allies — the United Kingdom and France — in this domain.

Details and full report on Defense Institution Building in Africa: An Assessment

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Conflict trends in Africa: a turn for the better in 2015?

This paper published by the Institute for Security Studies begins by looking at how fatality rates reached an all-time high in 2014 in Africa and explores the reasons for this. It then gives an overview of the political highlights of 2015 and explains how the continent is moving forward despite the continued conflicts in particular countries. It argues that although Africa has witnessed very deadly years recently, conflict has been continuously in a hand-full of countries and the rest of the continent is seeing improvements, as well as growth and higher standards of living.

For the full article about Conflict trends in Africa: a turn for the better in 2015?, kindly follow the link.

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Understanding African armies

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This report by the Institute for Security Studies, which focuses on key features of African armed forces, serves as an introductory guide to those interested not only in the military institutions themselves, but also the context in which European CSDP operations in Africa are deployed.

Capacity-building and training missions on the African continent are confronted with challenges which are often the result of regional, historical, economic and political processes – but also the outcome of divergences which exist between European and African security environments, among African forces themselves and with regard to threats faced. In presenting this analysis of African armies, this publication aims to foster increased understanding of the relevant issues, and enhance European effectiveness in this field.

For full access to the report on Understanding African armies, kindly follow the link. 

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Quels futurs pour le maintien de la paix et la gouvernance sécuritaire en Afrique? Ordre, violence et légitimité

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En juin 2015, par le Groupe indépendant de haut niveau chargé d’étudier les opérations de paix a remis le rapport HIPPO  au secrétaire général des Nations unies. Le Groupe a procédé à un examen approfondi des opérations onusiennes de maintien de la paix (OMP) dans un contexte où celles-ci continuent de se développer. Le nombre total de personnes affectées aux 16 opérations en cours, en date du 30 avril 2016, est de 121 780 sur le terrain, et 86 % sont déployées en Afrique. Ces opérations évoluent dans un contexte d’opérations contre-terroristes au Mali, de déploiement d’une brigade d’intervention « robuste » en République démocratique du Congo, d’une résurgence de guerre civile au Sud-Soudan et d’effondrement de l’État en République centrafricaine.

Le rapport d’analyse Francopaix publié par la Chaire Raoul-Dandurand en études stratégiques et diplomatiques (Université du Québec à Montréal) ne se penche pas directement sur les recommandations du rapport HIPPO ou sur les débats qu’il a soulevés autour de l’efficacité des opérations de maintien de la paix. Plutôt, les auteurs se concentrent sur des questions fondamentales qui relèvent trop souvent de prémisses non dites. Ces prémisses permettent, notamment, de légitimer les missions de paix, mais aussi, selon leur analyse, de cacher la crise d’identité et la crise de légitimité des opérations du maintien de la paix.

Pour accéder au rapport d’analyse Quels futurs pour le maintien de la paix et la gouvernance sécuritaire en Afrique? Ordre, violence et légitimité, veuillez cliquer sur le lien.

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Hybridité et politiques de sécurité en Afrique

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Ce Bulletin du Centre FrancoPaix en résolution des conflits et missions de paix par Niagalé Bagayoko, Robin Luckham et Eboe Hutchful étudie le contexte d'hybridité dans le secteur de la sécurité de nombreux pays d'Afrique et son influence sur les programmes RSS mis en œuvre.

Les auteurs pointent ainsi le fait que de nombreux programmes de réforme des systèmes de sécurité (RSS) mis en œuvre en Afrique se concentrent en priorité sur les institutions étatiques, les cadres légalement établis et les acteurs gouvernementaux. Cela peut affecter leur mise en œuvre, car cela les amène à ignorer un large éventail d'acteurs et de réseaux qui se réfèrent à des normes non codifiées. Selon les auteurs, intégrer plus largement le concept d'hybridité dans les analyses liées à la RSS est nécessaire pour mieux comprendre les pays concernés et in fine informer plus efficacement les politiques de sécurité menées sur le continent.

Pour accéder au bulletin Hybridité et politiques de sécurité en Afrique du centre FrancoPaix, veuillez suivre le lien.

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Investing in Peace and the Prevention of Violence in West Africa and the Sahel-Sahara: Conversations on the Secretary-General’s Plan of Action

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The International Peace Institute (IPI), the UN Office for West Africa and the Sahel (UNOWAS), and the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs co-organized a regional seminar in Dakar, Senegal, on June 27 and 28, 2016. This meeting brought together sixty participants from fourteen countries, including political leaders, members of civil society, and religious and traditional authorities, as well as representatives of the media, the private sector, governments, and regional and international organizations, to explore alternative measures to address the violent extremism affecting the region.

This paper outlines the recommendations agreed upon by the participants with regards to how the UN and its partners could more effectively prevent violent extremism in West Africa and the Sahel-Sahara subregions, in support of national governments and local authorities and communities and with the active participation of citizens. These recommendations include the need to focus on political participation, improved state-citizen relations, and inclusive dialogue as the primary mechanisms for prevention. They also agreed on the importance of local and regional preventive initiatives, and the need for institutional initiatives to prevent violent extremism to build on existing ones at the regional level, while recognizing the central role and responsibility of states in prevention.

To access Investing in Peace and the Prevention of Violence in West Africa and the Sahel-Sahara: Conversations on the Secretary-General’s Plan of Action study kindly follow the link.

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A decade of African Governance: 2006 - 2015 Index Report

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The 2016 Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) is the tenth Index launched by the Mo Ibrahim Foundation since 2006. Created to provide a tool to measure and monitor performance in every African country, it has been refined and strengthened each year, under the guidance of the Board of the Foundation, the Index Advisory Council, as well as friends and partners of the Foundation.  

The IIAG represents one of the most comprehensive collection of data on Africa governance. In order to provide a broad, documented and impartial picture of governance performance in every African country, the IIAG compiles a large amount of data issued by diverse sources. The entire Index time series is updated on an annual basis  to ensure that each new IIAG provides the most accurate data available. This process ensures that the Index is the most robust and up-to-date dashboard of the state of governance in every African country. As assessed by the IIAG, governance is defined as the provision of the political, social and economic public goods and services that every citizen has the right to expect from their state, and that a state has the responsibility to deliver to its citizens. The IIAG focuses on measuring outputs and outcomes of policy, rather than declarations of intent, de jure statutes and levels of expenditure.

To access A decade of African Governance: 2006 - 2015 Index Report kindly follow the link.

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Building Regional Border Security Cooperation: Lessons from the Maghreb

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This Peace Brief outlines lessons learned by the United States Institute of Peace during a series of workshops held in the spring of 2016 with border officials from Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The workshops applied an operations-driven approach to the development of a joint strategic vision for regional border security cooperation that is grounded in human security and rule of law principles.

The outcomes from the workshops provide important lessons for developing a plan for border security cooperation in other regions, which in turn can provide critical support to peacebuilding efforts where borders are used opportunistically by terrorists, militants, and criminals to evade law enforcement and create tension between neighboring states.

To read the full report please click here Building Regional Border Security Cooperation: Lessons from the Maghreb

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La longue marche de l’architecture africaine de sûreté et sécurité maritimes dans le golfe de Guinée

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Cet éclairage spécial sur l’insécurité maritime du Golfe de Guinée à été publié dans le numéro spécial du magazine Diplomatie d’octobre 2016, consacré à la sécurité maritime et au développement en Afrique. L’auteur explique les enjeux du sommet de Lomé sur la sécurité Maritime et décrit l’état actuel de l’architecture africaine de sûreté et de sécurité maritimes.

Pour accéder au document, veuillez suivre le lien suivant: La longue marche de l’architecture africaine de sûreté et sécurité maritimes dans le golfe de Guinée

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Monitoring de la stabilité régionale dans le bassin sahélien et en Afrique de l’Ouest : juillet à septembre 2016

securite humaine

Ce monitoring trimestriel, publié par le GRIP depuis 2011, est réalisé dans le cadre d’un projet intitulé "Contribution à l’amélioration de la sécurité humaine, à la prévention des conflits et au renforcement de l’état de droit en Afrique sub-saharienne", financé par le ministère des Affaires étrangères du Grand-Duché du Luxembourg.

L'objectif étant de suivre la situation sécuritaire en Afrique de l’Ouest avec un accent plus particulier sur le Burkina Faso, la Côte d’Ivoire, la Guinée, le Mali, le Niger et le Sénégal. Ce monitoring se penche sur les questions de sécurité interne au sens large, les tensions régionales, la criminalité et les trafics transfrontaliers.

Pour accéder au document, veuillez suivre le lien suivant: Monitoring de la stabilité régionale dans le bassin sahélien et en Afrique de l’Ouest : juillet à septembre 2016.

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Injustice and (In)Security: Public perceptions of Nigeria and Kenya’s security forces and their implications for the fight against violent extremism

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The authors focus on issues of public trust in security forces, corruption and the success and failure of security-led approaches vs development-oriented approaches to violence and violent extremism. For that, they use evidence from Afrobarometer surveys, analyze public perceptions of security in Nigeria and Kenya and the implications this has on countering violent extremism.

To access Injustice and (In)Security: Public perceptions of Nigeria and Kenya’s security forces and their implications for the fight against violent extremism kindly follow the link.

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Rapport sur le Conseil de paix et de sécurité 89 de l'Union Africaine

Ce rapport de l'Institut des Etudes de Sécurité revient sur la 89e session du Conseil de Paix et de Sécurité de l'Union Africaine. Il évoque notamment l’établissement d’une zone de libre-échange continentale, aborde la thématique des enfants soldats, un sujet brûlant dans certaines zones de guerre comme au Soudan du Sud, se penche sur les clés de la réussite des nombreux candidats à la présidence du Libéria, et détaille un nouveau modèle de financement de l’UA qui permettrait aux États membres de payer leur cotisation de manière régulière et ponctuelle.

Pour accéder au Rapport sur le Conseil de paix et de sécurité 89 de l'Union Africaine, veuillez suivre le lien.

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Criminality in Africa’s Fishing Industry: A Threat to Human Security

Thousands of foreign fishing vessels ply African waters every year seeking to tap the continent’s rich fish stocks. Many of these vessels are believed to be exploiting Africa’s fisheries illegally. This is compounded by inadequate monitoring and surveillance efforts of the fishing sector by African governments and complicity between foreign fishing companies and the African ministries responsible for regulating fishing. Ultimately, these problems have consequences for human security.

For full access to Criminality in Africa’s Fishing Industry: A Threat to Human Security, kindly follow the link.

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Flux Commerciaux et Contrôles des Transferts de Munitions Pour Armes Légères en Afrique

Le développement de contrôles spécifiques dans le cadre de la lutte contre le commerce illégal de munitions pour armes légères et de petit calibre a suscité un grand intérêt parmi les Etats, comme en témoignent les récents débats menés sur cette matière à l'échelon international. Le présent article comprend des informations contextuelles sur le commerce de munitions et sur les normes de contrôle existantes en Afrique, une des régions les plus touchées par la prolifération et l'utilisation illégale d'armes légères et de petit calibre et de leurs munitions.

Le chapitre qui suit étudie la problématique générale des contrôles de munitions pour armes légères et de petit calibre. Il est suivi par un aperçu des sources et transferts officiels autorisés de munitions pour armes de petit calibre à destination et en provenance de l'Afrique, ainsi qu'à l'intérieur de l’Afrique.

Les chapitres suivants sont dédiés aux normes de contrôle multilatérales valables qui existent en Afrique et décrivent les défis que l’Afrique devra encore relever pour instaurer des contrôles fiables des munitions. D'aucuns avancent qu'il existe de bonnes bases pour le développement de contrôles adéquats en Afrique. Pourtant, des efforts supplémentaires seront indispensables pour lutter efficacement contre les conséquences désastreuses de la prolifération et de l'utilisation illégale de munitions pour armes légères et de petit calibre ...

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Ammunition Stockpile Management in Africa: Challenges and scope for action

The improper management of conventional ammunition and explosives poses significant safety and security risks. Frequent ammunition depot explosions and diversions from ammunition stocks of state actors testify to the relevance of the issue to Africa. Overcoming challenges to effective national ammunition management can be a formidable task in itself. This paper considers the challenges to and scope for action on ammunition management in Africa. It is argued that concerted efforts by African states and their international partners will be essential to effectively limiting risks of undesirable explosive events and ammunition diversions on the continent.

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Vers une montée en puissance de l’engagement allemand dans la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest ?

Depuis 2017, l’Allemagne accompagne la France aux côtés des membres du G5 Sahel pour soutenir entre autres la création d’une Force conjointe visant à lutter contre le terrorisme et la criminalité transfrontalière au Sahel. Cette analyse se penche sur l’état des lieux des différents types d’engagements sécuritaires pris par l’Allemagne en Afrique de l’Ouest.

Afin d'accéder à l'analyse, Vers une montée en puissance de l’engagement allemand dans la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest ?, veuillez suivre le lien.

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L’intangibilité des frontières africaines à l’épreuve des réalités contemporaines

Les conflits ouverts qui secouent le continent africain trouvent leur source essentiellement dans la lutte pour le pouvoir, l’appropriation des ressources naturelles ou la problématique des frontières. Le principe de l’intangibilité des frontières est de plus en plus remis en cause au point d’inciter l’Union africaine à adopter en 2007 un Plan d’action destiné à encourager les Etats africains à procéder par la négociation à la démarcation de leurs frontières.

Afin d'accéder à l'analyse, L’intangibilité des frontières africaines à l’épreuve des réalités contemporaines, veuillez suivre le lien.

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UN Peace Keeping Operations and Rule of Law Assistance in Africa 1989-2010: Data, Patterns and Questions for the Future

This Report provides new systematic data on two decades of UN rule of law assistance in Africa, covering a total of 36 UN peace operations (peacekeeping, political missions and offices). Seven areas of rule of law assistance are examined, including: (1) judicial reform, (2) constitutional reform, (3) law reform, (4) rule of law in public administration reform, (5) legal awareness and access to justice reform, (6) law enforcement reform, and (7) reforms of detentions, and prisons. The attached document presents the executive summary of the report.

To read the research report, click here.

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Can Ad Hoc Security Coalitions in Africa Bring Stability?

For over two decades, keeping the peace in Africa has occupied a major slice of the United Nations Security Council’s time, resulting in many more peace operations deploying on the continent than any other region. Since 2011, one trend has been an increase in ad hoc coalitions intended to stabilize certain conflict zones in Africa. Advocates suggest these coalitions are well suited for dealing with some of the continent’s deadliest transnational armed groups. Yet debate continues over who should authorize, finance, and provide them with various forms of technical, logistical, and security assistance. Outside of their benefits and drawbacks, it is clear that the coalitions pose particular challenges for the African Union (AU).

For full access to Can Ad Hoc Security Coalitions in Africa Bring Stability?, kindly follow the link. 

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The need for an African Union Special Envoy for Climate Change and Security

This essay reflects upon the climate-related security risks facing Africa and reviews the current policy responses. It contends that broad AU member state support for an AU Special Envoy for Climate Change and Security would be a viable strategy that strengthens the AU’s response to climate risks. The idea of the envoy—which stems from the AU’s Peace and Security Council meeting in May 2018—is an opportunity to pre-empt migration and forced displacement and moreover, ‘climate-proof’ the AU’s peace and security architecture.

For full access to The need for an African Union Special Envoy for Climate Change and Security, please follow the link provided.

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Huit priorités pour l’Union africaine en 2019

En 2019, l’Union africaine (UA) sera confrontée à de nombreux défis, alors que les conflits anciens et nouveaux parcourent tout le continent. International Crisis Group a ainsi identifié sept crises particulièrement aigües qui vont façonner l'année et le travail de l’organisation régionale qui doit aussi poursuivre ses réformes institutionnelles. 

Pour accéder à l'article, Huit priorités pour l’Union africaine en 2019, veuillez suivre le lien.

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L'Afrique des minerais stratégiques - Du détournement des richesses à la culture de la guerre

La mondialisation telle que nous la connaissons aujourd’hui n’est pas sans conséquence sur l’émergence des facteurs d’insécurité qui dominent le paysage politique. Ces facteurs, au nombre de quatre, ont déjà été identifiés par les chercheurs du Oxford Research Group à Londres* : la compétition accrue pour les ressources, la militarisation globale, le changement climatique, et la marginalisation d’une large partie de la population mondiale. 

Ces facteurs méritent non seulement d’être répertoriés, mais aussi additionnés. Ils sont tellement interconnectés qu’il serait inapproprié de les dissocier. Ce rapport développe la question de la compétition féroce pour l’accès aux ressources, en zoomant sur la situation qui prévaut sur le continent africain, un échantillon représentatif d’une situation qui se généralise. Cette course effrénée aux énergies fossiles et richesses minières mobilise les faiseurs de guerres, fait parler la poudre, donc contribue à la militarisation (2e facteur). Cette militarisation – qui est une tendance lourde – tire profit de l’extraction des ressources, attise de nouvelles convoitises et accélère d’autant le dérèglement climatique (3e facteur), dont le chaos risque à son tour de déclencher l’intervention de forces armées.  Ce « climate change » constitue à son tour un multiplicateur de menaces, en raison de l’interaction explosive entre super-extractivisme et crise climatique. Mais ces deux facteurs, sur fond de militarisation et d’exclusion, s’imbriquent aux deux autres. L’acharnement pour s’approprier les matières premières et minerais stratégiques par la violence des prédateurs appauvrit les démunis. Pire encore, il accélère le processus de marginalisation d’une partie croissante des populations dans le monde, contribue à l’exclusion politico-économique (4e facteur), qui se manifeste à travers la prolifération des déplacés, des réfugiés (climatiques ou non) et d’États fragiles, dont 8 sur 12 se situent sur le continent africain. Ce « rideau de fer des inégalités », selon l’expression d’Amartya Sen**, suscite en ricochet des dérives militaristes, y compris les mesures contestables de sécurisation. 

Pour accéder à l'intégralité de l'article, L'Afrique des minerais stratégiques - Du détournement des richesses à la culture de la guerre, veuillez suivre le lien.

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Report of the African Civil Society Consultation on the Draft African Union Policy Framework on Security Sector Reform

The African Union (AU) held an African civil society consultation on the draft AU Policy Framework on Security Sector Reform (SSR), in Abuja, Nigeria, from 22-24 November 2010. This publication presents the main highlights and conclusions of the consultation.

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Books

Security Activities of External Actors in Africa

Security Activities of External Actors in Africa  is the first book to systematically map the security-related policies, strategies and activities of major external actors in Africa. It assesses the involvement of seven key external actors—China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States, the European Union and the United Nations—in sub-Saharan Africa. It pays special attention to military presences, military interventions, contributions to peace operations, arms supplies, defence and security agreements, military training, and other forms of military and security assistance.

Mapping the diverse security-related activities of external actors in Africa is an important first step towards understanding Africa’s evolving security environment. This book takes that step.

Book

International Responses to Mass Atrocities in Africa: Responsibility to Protect, Prosecute and Palliate

This book examines how the international community responds to mass atrocities. It argues that states and other international actors have developed three sets of norms and practices to address such situations. The first is the responsibility to protect, an assertion that when states cannot or will not stop genocide, crimes against humanity, and widespread war crimes in their territory, or are responsible for their commission, the international community has a duty to transgress sovereignty, including through the use of force, to protect civilians and stop the atrocities. Second is the recognition of the responsibility to prosecute those who commit such atrocities, institutionalized in the International Criminal Court, as well as ad hoc tribunals and the exercise of universal jurisdiction. Third is the provision of humanitarian assistance to those affected by violent conflict, identified as the responsibility to palliate since humanitarian assistance can never do more than provide temporary relief for civilians caught in war.

The book analyses how these three responsibilities operate individually and together in four interrelated African case studies – Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Darfur. A core argument is that while these responsibilities have all arisen in the context of an ongoing global revolution in the protection of human rights, they do not always mutually support each other. Indeed, policymakers and practitioners face multiple conundrums when implementing one or more of these responses. Further, while norms have been accepted, there is frequently little will or capacity on the part of states and intergovernmental organizations to engage in appropriate action to protect civilians. The book uniquely examines atrocity response from multiple perspectives simultaneously, and will be of interest to international policymakers and those who are practically involved in stopping atrocities and protecting civilians in the midst of violent conflict, as well as all who are concerned about protecting people in conflict.

For an interesting podcast about the book by the author follow the link here.

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Crafting an African security architecture

This book responds to new regional conflicts over health, water, land and food security in the world's poorest, most socially fragmented continent. The work assesses African regional security arrangements and provides new policy recommendations for the future.

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Statebuilding and Police Reform

This book explores how and why police reform became an international phenomenon in the era of statebuilding that followed the end of the Cold War. Police reform has become an indispensible element in the spread of liberal democracy. Policing is distinguished by its ability to combine reasonable and forcible methods to preserve and spread liberal values. The book examines the reason police reform was introduced as a method of building consensus in Latin America and the Balkans and documents the development of its use in Africa, the Middle East and the Caucasus region. It illustrates how police power binds the liberal value of freedom to the security needs of post-conflict regions and discusses its force as a strategy to bring law and order to a global security domain. Drawing on a multi-disciplinary approach to the subject, the book delves deeply into policing as a method to bring coherence to global security. It traces the presence of coherent police strategies in contemporary international relations through studies of the United Nations, the European Union and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. By contrasting police reform with security sector reform, the book explores how liberal peace is imagined by the international NGO sector, state aid agencies and international organizations. This book will be of much interest to students of statebuilding, post-conflict reconstruction, critical security studies, development studies and IR in general.

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Budgeting for the Military Sector in Africa

In this comprehensive study, 12 experts describe and analyse the military budgetary processes and degree of oversight and control in eight African countries-Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and South Africa-spanning the continent's sub-regions. Each country study addresses a wide range of questions, such as the roles of the finance and defence ministries, budget offices, audit departments and external actors in the military budgetary processes; the extent ofcompliance with standard public expenditure management procedures; and how well official military expenditure figures reflect the true economic resources devoted to military activities in these countries. The framework for the country studies is provided by a detailed model for good practice in budgeting for the military sector. The individual studies are tied together by a synthesis chapter, which provides a comparative analysis of the studies, classifies the eight countries according to theiradherence to the principles of public expenditure management and explains why individual countries find themselves with a certain classification. The book draws on the results of the country studies and their analysis by making concrete recommendations to the governments of African countries and the international community. While the military sector in many African states is believed to be favoured in terms of resource allocation and degree of political autonomy, it is not subject to the samerules and procedures as other sectors. Because of the unique role of the armed forces as the guarantor of national security, and their demand for a high degree of confidentiality in certain activities, the military sector receives a significant proportion of state resources and is not subject to public scrutiny. The book argues that while the military sector requires some confidentiality it should be subject to the same standard procedures and rules followed by other state sectors.

View the book here.

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Democratic Governance of the Security Sector beyond the OSCE Area

The present book addresses the prospects for security sectorreform and governance regimes, focusing on democratic civiliancontrol of armed forces. It assesses the extent to which the pioneering OSCE experience has inspired Africa and the Americas within their respective multilateral institutional settings.

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La Réforme des Systèmes de Sécurité et de Justice en Afrique francophone

L’OIF a édité un ouvrage traitant des spécificités institutionnelles et juridiques propres aux systèmes de sécurité et de justice en Afrique francophone, dans le but de contribuer au succès des réformes engagées dans ces secteurs dans le cadre d’environnements post-conflictuels ou lors de l’élaboration de stratégies de prévention. 

La réforme des systèmes de sécurité et de justice en Afrique francophone réunit les contributions d’une vingtaine d’experts ayant participé, en mai 2009, à un séminaire soutenu par l’OIF et organisé en collaboration avec le Centre des Nations unies pour la paix et le désarmement en Afrique (UNREC) et le Réseau africain pour le secteur de sécurité (RASS/ASSN).

Pour consulter cette publication, veuillez suivre ce lien.

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Governance in Post-Conflict Societies: Rebuilding Fragile States

This book explores the problem of states that fail, leading to conflict and war, and how to rebuild them. Focusing on governance as critical to post-conflict reconstruction, the contributors illustrate the connections among the core functions that governance fulfills in any society: assuring security, achieving effective provision of public goods and services, and generating legitimacy. This volume brings together chapters by scholars and practitioners studying and working on governance issues from a variety of perspectives. Divided into three sections, this volume opens by taking a fresh look at the historical record on nation-building, constitutional design in deeply divided societies, the dynamics of elections, and governance of the security sector. It then explores the range of actors involved in governance reconstruction and highlights the evolving role of the US military, the influence of multinational firms, the importance of the civil service, and the potential impact of Internet-based diasporas. Finally, it looks at local governance, highlighting the subnational state-society structures and relations in fragile and post-conflict states, and draws on case studies from Latin America, Africa, and Afghanistan." "This book will be of much interest to students of international public administration, global governance, post-conflict reconstruction, foreign policy and international relations in general, as well as to practitioners in the field.

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ASSN Quarterly Newsletter October 2012

This issue marks one year since the launch of The ASSN Quarterly. The inaugural edition was published in October 2011. Four editions have since followed, and this anniversary issue is dedicated to profiling the work of the Next Generation of African Security and Justice Reform (S&JR) scholars and practitioners. These are young Africans from across the continent who are already making a contribution in the pursuit of African participation and ownership of S&JR programmes on the continent. This edition also highlights the importance of leadership to development in Peace, Security and Justice by highlighting the contribution of the African Leadership Centre (ALC), a core institutional member of the ASSN that has been the foremost breeding ground for this Next Generation of S&JR practitioners and thinkers.

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Journal of African Elections Volume 12

The Journal of African Elections is an interdisciplinary biannual publication of research and writing in the human sciences which seeks to promote a scholarly understanding of developments and change in Africa. The journal is published by the Electoral Institute of Southern Africa.
 Please click on this link to access the journal.
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ASSN Quarterly Newsletter January 2014

Articles in this newsletter include:

  • Workshop on Draft Operational Guidance Notes for AU SSR Policy Framework
  • Regional Experts attend Executive Course on Gender and Security in Malawi
  • Symposium on Rising Insecurity in North Eastern Nigeria
  • Regional Conference on Conflict and Security Governance in West Africa
  • Consultative Meetings with Ghana Prison and Immigration Services
  • Beyond Westgate: Security and Accountability in Kenya
  • Sexual Citizenship and Security
  • Gender and SSR in Africa - The Situation Thus Far
  • MEMBER SPOTLIGHT: Paul Chiy
  • PUBLICATION: Masculinities, Militarisation and the End Conscription Campaign: War Resistance in Apartheid
    South Africa by Daniel Conway

To access the newsletter click here.

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SSR Trends and Challenges in Africa: A Partners' Summary of the first Africa Forum on SSR

Available in العربية and Français 

The Africa Forum on SSR, 24th – 26th November 2014, reflects the importance and depth of critical understanding of the topic of Security Sector Reform. The Forum brought together over 250 policy makers, analysts and practitioners to exchange experiences and lessons, and explore practical ways to further successful SSR against the myriad of challenges faced by countries and regions in Africa. This partner summary compiles notes on the relevance of SSR and the recognition of SSR as a political process, the importance of monitoring and evaluation, the need for a holistic approach, and the role of the AU and sub-regional institutions in supporting justice and SSR.

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African Security Sector Network (ASSN) Quarterly | June 2015

ASSN Quarterly is published by the African Security Sector Network. It highlights the activities of the network, as well as other developments in the fields of Security and Justice Reform, both in Africa and beyond. 

In this June 2015 Special edition, a wide range of issues and developments are covered, such as: the hosting of the first Africa Forum on Security Sector Reform by the African Union in November 2014, the East Africa Energy Infrastructure Security Forum held in Nairobi, the wrapping up of the Project on Gender Mainstreaming in the Ghana Security Sector led by WIPSEN-Africa, and the publication of the Partner's Summary of the above-mentioned Africa Forum on SSR on Security Sector Reform trends and challenges in Africa.  

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ACSS's expert Assis Malaquias on Maritime Security in Africa

The U.S. Department of State has honored the Africa Center’s Dr. Assis Malaquias with an award recognising his unique contributions in advancing maritime security efforts in Africa. Dr. Malaquias has been leading the Africa Center’s maritime security portfolio since 2009. In this capacity he has facilitated numerous discussions with African governments and Regional Economic Communities on strengthening Africa’s collective maritime security architecture. These efforts have contributed to the Yaoundé Declaration of June 2013 and the “Code of Conduct Concerning the Repression of Piracy, Armed Robbery against Ships, and Illicit Maritime Activity in West and Central Africa” in which 26 heads of government from West and Central African states agreed to formalize their cooperation on maritime security issues.

To mark the occasion, Dr. Malaquias reflects on the current state of maritime security efforts on the continent, addressing its importance for Africa's economic development and security and potential strategies and best practices that can encourage regional coordination in the field.

Read the interview online.

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Learning Lab on ‘Improving Security Sector Governance in Africa’

The African Security Sector Network (ASSN) and the Geneva Democratic Centre for the Control on Armed Forces (DCAF) with funding support from the Open Society Foundation (OSF) organised a workshop in Dakar (Sénégal) from 26 – 27 April 2016. The workshop was themed Improving Security Sector Governance and Reform in Africa : a Learning Lab.”

Moving-from-concept-to-practice-SSR-in-West-Africa
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…If it (SSR) is treated as a technical process abstracted from national political, security, socio-economic and cultural realities, it will not succeed. 

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Despite multiple reasons why SSR in Africa is difficult examples of reform examples of reform also show that significant opportunities to move towards more democratic security governance do exist. The ‘Learning Lab on Security Sector Governance and Reform in Africa’ drew on the experience of academics, researchers, policy makers and practitioners in this field in order to explore these challenges and identify ways to move forward in spite of them. To support these reflections, the Background Paper, Security Sector Governance and Reform in Africa provides a baseline understanding of SSG/R concepts, policies and practice. It then considers key challenges for SSR in Africa before assessing programming gaps and potential entry points for engagement. The Background Paper is complemented by six Think Pieces, which are intended to help shape discussion during the different sessions of the Learning Lab.

The Learning Lab was a two-day workshop-event drawing together predominantly African experts (researchers, academics, policy makers and practitioners) with practical experience of the security sector, Security Sector Reform (SSR), and Security Sector Governance (SSG) in Africa. The Lab began with an introductory session which was graced by the presence of His Excellency Dr Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Special Representative of the UN Secretary General and Head of the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel (UNOWAS).

The bulk of the Lab took the form of six moderated sessions, underpinned by the six following Think Pieces:

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experience has shown that important progress can be made when internal and external support for reform align at opportune moments for change.

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In light of the opportunities and challenges to SSR processes identified, a concluding session summarised options and recommendations for potential entry points for African and international engagement in promoting an African governance-driven SSR approach based on accountability, rule of law and human rights.

As well as the six Think Pieces, this blog highlights practical implications for identifying the challenges of SSR processes: Moving from concept to practice: SSR in West Africa.

The resources are also available in français.

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Accountable and legitimate security through civilian democratic oversight and control

This think piece prepared by Sandy Africa (ASSN) for the Learning Lab on Security Sector Governance in Africa explains that civilian democratic oversight and control is a necessary, though not exclusive, precondition for accountable and legitimate security. By civilian democratic oversight is meant the exercise of the mandatory authority of one body to hold another to account. The author argues that in countries experiencing armed conflict, the civilian democratic oversight of the security sector is weak or non-existent. There is a window of opportunity to engage in civilian democratic oversight when there is a cessation of hostilities but even then, the immediate challenges are peacekeeping and peace enforcement. A more realistic prospect happens when there is a conducive and decisive shift in the political conditions.

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Protecting a democratic public space: maturing civil-military relations

This think piece, prepared by Boubacar N’Diaye and Eboe Hutchful (ASSN) for the Learning Lab on Security Sector Governance in Africa, looks at the challenges and implications to improve ‘civil-military relations’ (CMR) for a better protection of a democratic public space. The document explains how, since the end of the Cold war, the academic field of CMR has gone into decline whilst SSR has been ascending. If CMR focused insufficiently on the micro-politics of security institutions, it is argued that SSR has not necessarily resulted in integrated approaches. SSR is thus particularly challenged in this sector, with weak budgetary and expenditure controls and corruption in the security sector. There is also a potential for reversals in current CMR, as has been demonstrated recently in Uganda and Congo-Brazzaville, where police, military and paramilitary forces were used to violently suppress protests. To engage in efforts to improve CMR in Africa, it is argued that it is important to identify states where efforts already started, under the leadership of a new generation of military leaders who are willing to embrace new roles and responsibilities for civilian institutions.

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Towards a regional agenda for security sector governance and reform: Opportunities and challenges for the African Union and ECOWAS

This think piece, prepared by Ornella Moderan (DCAF) for the Learning Lab on Security Sector Governance in Africa, looks at the opportunities and challenges for the African Union (AU) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in the development of a regional agenda for security sector governance and reform. If major steps have already been made with the African Union Policy Framework on Security Reform (2013) as well as with the work of ECOWAS to develop a common normative framework, the transposition of theoretical standards into practice remains a challenge. Providing member states with multidimensional support also poses a number of questions in terms of their own mandates and capacities. The implications for SSR are outlined in the paper and these vary from contextualising international discourse on SSR to national ownership and regional support. Omella Moderan outlines various entry points for engagement, from fostering regional capacities for policy implementation to reinforcing AU-ECOWAS coordination.

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Security and safety from the bottom up: hybrid security governance

This Think Piece prepared by Niagalé Bagayoko for the Learning Lab on Security Sector Governance in Africa addresses the implications of hybrid security for Security Sector Reform (SSR).  After presenting the challenges institutions operating alongside or within nominally formal political institutions bring to SSR, the author calls for better identifying the interactions and interpenetrations of formal and informal networks that constitute as a whole “hybrid security orders”.

In order to build a better understanding of all the actors, particularly informal actors, who have an influence on the security sector at large and can thus affect SSR processes, the author proposes some entry points: to map out the informal actors and the informal norms, solidarities, and networks in the security sector; to build capacity to orient their activities towards supporting SSR; to help develop empirically grounded programmes and policies; and to help in the design of oversight as well as monitoring and evaluation processes.

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The changing face of security provision: commercial security providers and the privatisation of security

This Think Piece prepared by Alan Bryden for the Learning Lab on Security Sector Governance in Africa explores the issue of private security. The paper highlights a lack of knowledge or understanding on the scale, activities, and implications of the private security industry in Africa. Private security provision, and the lack of knowledge on the topic, can affect Security Sector Reform (SSR) in a variety of ways: the state has an incomplete view of the actors providing security on the national territory, there is a blurring of roles and responsibilities between public and private security, private security can result in greater security for some while leaving insecurity to others, and security privatisation remains somewhat neglected in programmatic responses.

The author proposes some entry points to engage with private security and better understand the related issues. Fostering African research capabilities can further the development of an evidence base to increase the visibility of the issue, while developing the legal and policy frameworks on oversight and accountability is a step to control the growth and evolution of the private security sector. Furthermore, the author argues for supporting capacity building of security sector management and oversight bodies, for empowering civil society, and leveraging international initiatives to create momentum for change.

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Interpreting International Norms for a More Impactful Human Rights-based Approach (HRBA) in SSR

HRBA3

How can a system-wide guidance tool grounded in international human rights norms and standards strengthen the holistic approach inherent to SSR? This second paper from the HRBA Working Group from ISSAT’s Methodology Cell explores international human rights norms and standards with jurisprudence set by the ECHR, IACHR and UN international instruments.

Read Paper 1: Rethinking a Human Rights-based Approach to SSR

For further information on the Working Group's research, please refer to the Rethinking a Human Rights-based Approach (HRBA) in Security Sector Reform blog

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Lessons Learned from STRIVE Horn of Africa

STRIVE Horn of Africa (HoA) represents the first P/CVE-specific programme by the European Commission outside the EU with the overall objective to prevent terrorism and to counter violent extremism while continuing to respect human rights and international law. The underlying purpose of STRIVE HoA was to strengthen the understanding of drivers of violent extremism through evidence-based analysis; to develop best practices around P/CVE programming in the Horn of Africa based on short pilot activities; and to provide recommendations to contribute to increased impact and more focused interventions.

Given the STRIVE HoA’s particular focus on learning, an Independent Evaluation as well as a Lessons Learned Conference was included in the programme to be carried out in the final stage of implementation.

The Lessons Learned Conference provided a platform to present and discuss the lessons learned under the four results areas and preventative communication as well as an opportunity for the independent evaluators to present their key findings and recommendations. A broad range of P/CVE colleagues from EU institutions, EU member states, international organisations and civil society participated in the conference. Following the conference a Lessons Learned Report was produced based on the presentations, discussions and key recommendations in relation to the four result areas and preventative communication, while also including the key findings and recommendations of the independent Evaluation Report. 

For full access to the Lessons Learned Report, kindly follow the link. 

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ASSN Newsletter July 2012

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ASSN Quarterly Newsletter Nr. 6 January 2013

ASSN Quarterly is published by the African Security Sector Network. It highlights the activities of the network, as well as other developments in the fields of Security and Justice Reform, both in Africa and beyond.

Below are some of the highlights in this edition:

  • The African Union Launches a Programme to Build its Security Sector Reform (SSR) Capacity in partnership with the European Union, the United Nations and the ASSN
  • A Stakeholders' Meeting on Lessons Learned in Kenyan Police Reforms, organised in Nairobi by the ASSN's Regional Hub for East Africa and the Great Lakes Region
  • A Roundtable on Security Sector Expenditure Reviews, organised by the World Bank and the International Security Sector Advisory Team (ISSAT)
  • Southern Africa Launches a Revised Strategic Plan on Defence and Security
  • Papua New Guinea Develops a National Security Policy (NSP)
  • Various updates about the Security and Justice Sector-related activities of individual members of the ASSN network, as well as the inauguration of the ASSN's new Interim Executive Committee and profiles of some of the ASSN's newest members 
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