UK

UK

Case Studies

Gender and Security Sector Reform: Examples from the Ground

Selected Resources

Training Resource Package: Guide to Integrating Gender in SSR Training- DCAF

Video: Gender in SSR-Stephen Jackson, Chief of Staff at the UN Office in Burundi

The Examples from the Ground are concrete illustrations of ways in which a gender perspective has been integrated in different security sector institutions around the world. They range from measures to counter human trafficking in Kosovo, to women’s organisations’ involvement with security institutions in Nepal, to female parliamentarians’ contribution to post-conflict reconstruction in Rwanda. These examples can help policymakers, trainers and educators better understand and demonstrate the linkages between gender and SSR.

The examples are organised around the following nine themes, for which a short introduction is provided:

• Police Reform and Gender
• Defence Reform and Gender
• Justice Reform and Gender
• Penal Reform and Gender
• Border Management and Gender
• Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender
• National Security Policy-Making and Gender
• Civil Society Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender
• SSR Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation and Gender

For downloading individual examples and case studies in Integrating Gender into SSR Training on Kosovo, Liberia, Nicaragua, Sierra Leone, Timor-Leste, Hungary, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the Central African Republic, Indonesia, Peru, Somalia, Afghanistan, the Russian Federation, Tajikstan, Rwand, Brazil, Israel, Jamaica, Nepal, the United States, and the regions of West Africa and the Pacific, kindly follow the link. 

case study

Videos

RUSI Chief of the Defence Staff Lecture 2012

The annual Christmas lecture to the Royal United Services Institute by General Sir David Richards GCB CBE DSO ADC Gen, Chief of the Defence Staff, UK Ministry of Defence.

This 2012 lecture elaborates on how the new Joint Forces Command and the changes in the armed forces as a result of the 2010 National Security Strategy (NSS) and the Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) will need to adapt to contingency operations and to more steady-state defence engagement as a means of conflict prevention, especially after the withdrawal of combat troops from Afghanistan in 2014. This will include military contributions to Security Sector Reform as part of the joint Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO)/Ministry of Defence (MOD) Defence Engagement Strategy.

video

Inspector Pilkington on challenges and community policing

An interview with Inspector Pauline Pilkington of the UK International Police College,including an example of community policing from Namibia.

video

Podcasts

Smart Policing in Brazil

Vishva Samani reports on how smart policing in Brazil keeps a check on the police in a BBC World Service Episode.

To listen to the episode, click here.

Podcast

UK JDP 3-40: Security and Stabilisation: The Military Contribution

This audio presentation supports the written version of UK Joint Doctrine Publication 3-40: Security and Stabilisation: The Military Contribution, which is also available to download from the UK Ministry of Defence's website, or through a link in the Resource Library/Publications and Papers.

Podcast

Jusqu'où peut aller la Nouvelle IRA - Armée républicaine irlandaise?

Créée en 2012, elle a revendiqué huit attaques cette année en Irlande du Nord, dont une la semaine dernière contre des officiers. Pas de quoi encore parler "d'état de crise", mais le groupe armé semble décidé à profiter de la visibilité donnée par le Brexit, estime la chercheuse Agnès Maillot.

Pour écouter le podcast Jusqu'où peut aller la Nouvelle IRA - Armée républicaine irlandaise?, veuillez suivre le lien.

Podcast

Policy and Research Papers

Does SSR improve security in developing countries?

ssr lisa denney

Lisa Denney and Craig Valters studied the effectiveness of security sector reform (SSR) in a recently published review of international experience for the UK Department for International Development (DFID). The authors point out in the report serious shortcomings of capacity building approaches in SSR, notably the insufficiency of providing solely technical skills and the need to recognise the political roots of insecurity. 

In this commentary, the authors stress that programmes are more effective when politically aware, when adapted to the local needs and capacities, and when there is a flexible yet long-term commitment by donors. Finally, given the investment and stakes of SSR programmes, better understanding the effectiveness of different forms of support is necessary.

To access the piece Does SSR improve security in developing countries? as well as the report Evidence Synthesis: Security Sector Reform and Organisational Capacity Building , kindly follow the link.

Paper

The EU, NATO and the Integration of Europe: Rules and Rhetoric

Why did Western European states agree to the enlargement of the EU and NATO? Frank Schimmelfennig analyzes the history of the enlargement process and develops a theoretical approach of 'rhetorical action' to explain why it occurred. While rationalist theory explains the willingness of East European states to join the NATO and EU, it does not explain why member states decided to admit them. Using original data, Schimmelfennig shows that expansion to the East can be understood in terms of liberal democratic community building. Drawing on the works of Jon Elster and Erving Goffman, he demonstrates that the decision to expand was the result of rhetorical action. Candidates and their supporters used arguments based on collective identity, norms and values of the Western community to shame opponents into acquiescing to enlargement. This landmark book makes an enormous contribution to theory in international relations and to the study of European politics.

Access full paper at http://www.cambridge.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item1170965/?site_locale=en_GB

Paper

Policing the Context: Principles and Guidance to Inform International Policing Assistance

This document draws lessons on what it means to uphold and promote core policing principles in our overseas assistance, providing a crucial insight into both ‘what works’ and the many challenges that we must navigate to achieve success. It is based on the collective UK international policing experience over recent years including Afghanistan, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and most recently in the Democratic Republic of Congo and in Libya.

Paper

Hard Power and Soft Power: The Utility of Military Force as an Instrument of Policy in the 21st Century

A U.S. report by Colin Gray from the Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) based at the U.S. Army War College discussing the future of hard and soft power in military operations.

Paper

Community Security Handbook

The main purpose of this handbook is to explain the principles underpinning Community Security interventions, and suggest practical approaches to implementing them, drawing on the work of Saferworld and a select number of other agencies. It is aimed at practitioners–particularly programme managers–and aims to help them work through the steps involved in planning, implementing, evaluating and improving Community Security interventions. It sets out the objectives of Saferworld’s Community Security work, explains why we see it as important, and draws together a significant body of learning and experience.

Paper

Reflections on the Northern Ireland Experience

The origins of the most recent sustained period of conflict in Northern Ireland can be traced back to the civil rights movement that emerged in 1968, the coercive response by the Unionist government and communities, and subsequent armed Republican campaign against the British government and security forces. What followed was over 30 years of sectarian violence, terrorism, counter-terrorism and the separation of communities. The signing of the Belfast/Good Friday Agreement in 1998 was not a conclusion to the conflict nor a resolution of the issues that had been the catalyst for the violence and disorder. Instead, the Agreement provided a framework for the transformation of the conflict through a peaceful political process and the reform of policing and justice institutions in Northern Ireland.

In 2013, Saferworld and Intercomm facilitated roundtable discussions with community development and interface workers from both Loyalist and Republican backgrounds; police officers from an operational and strategic background; academics and members of civil society to reflect on progress, challenges and lessons with regard to community policing, the policing of public disorder, and the management of transition in Northern Ireland.

The resulting paper, Reflections on the Northern Ireland experience: the lessons underpinning the normalisation of policing and security in a divided society , highlights issues of leadership, trust, partnership and accountability as key to progress and offers insight and valuable lessons drawn from the Northern Ireland experience that resonate with other contexts emerging from violent conflict.

Paper

ICTs for Monitoring and Evaluation of Peacebuilding Programs

The purpose of this paper is to explore the incorporation of information and communications technologies (ICTs) into the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems of peacebuilding programmes. It introduces the reader to the breadth and depth of new technologies that are currently available or could potentially be available to monitor and evaluate (including measure and disseminate) results of peacebuilding programmes. More specifically, the paper focuses on exploring the application of the following ICTs: mobile technology, social media, big data, the digitzation of surveys, and tools to better visualize data. 

Key questions this document addresses: 

  • How can ICTs help overcome key structural and programmatic monitoring and evaluation challenges as they relate to peacebuilding programmes? 
  • How have ICTs been integrated or used to monitor and evaluate peacebuilding programmes? 
  • What are the key considerations that must be taken into account when incorporating new technologies into monitoring and evaluation systems for programmes implemented in conflict and fragile environments? 
  • What are some of the resources, in terms of hardware, or software, available to practitioners? 

Access the paper here.

Paper

Civil Society and Security Sector Reform in Post-conflict Liberia: Painting a Moving Train without Brushes

This article describes the activities related to civil society's engagement with the question of security sector reform (SSR) in Liberia since the signing of the Accra Comprehensive Peace Accord (CPA) in August 2003, identifies the challenges it faces and draws lessons learned from this engagement; particularly the need to develop local capacity, networks of support and national ownership. Consideration is given to the specifics of the rapidly evolving post-conflict context in which such reforms are taking place and their connection to the field of transitional justice as a means of addressing a history of human rights abuses. The discussion also covers the scope of potential engagement for civil society in the new political landscape in Liberia that has been created by the deployment of one of the world's largest peacekeeping forces and the arrest of former president Charles Taylor.

To access the article, follow this link.

Paper

Security Sector Reform and the Rule of Law

Stabilisation Issues Notes provide a short summary of what the Stabilisation Unit has learned to date. They have been developed on the basis of experience and are aimed at improving the effectiveness of our practical engagement in various aspects of stabilisation. They are aimed primarily at the Stabilisation Unit‟s own practitioners and consultants, and those of other HMG departments. They are not a formal statement of HMG policy.

Key Messages
1) Stabilisation planning and implementation is about identifying / addressing the specific activities required to achieve political stability in countries emerging from conflict.
2) Promoting the rule of law in stabilisation environments can help a state to increase its legitimacy, allow fairer political negotiation and uphold the implementation of political agreements. The most urgent priority is often establishing law and order, meeting internal security needs and ensuring basic functioning of the criminal justice system.
3) Security Sector Stabilisation (SSS) activities enable essential and minimum security functions to be established and maintained to achieve stabilisation  objectives. They are not the same as Security System Reform (SSR) in more benign environments; they should however help create the conditions for SSR, when conditions permit.
4) The urgency of meeting security needs has often led to quick fix approaches and a singular focus on expanding the size of a single organisation often with a „train and equip‟ mentality. This will often fall short of providing the kind of support that will contribute to lasting security outcomes.

Paper

Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration

This Issues Note gives readers a basic understanding of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR), so that they are in a position to consider whether DDR is an appropriate stabilisation intervention. It clarifies questions, issues and articulates the decisions that the practitioner may face with when considering a DDR programme. This note should be read in conjunction with Post-Conflict Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration: A UK View, and with other Stabilisation Issues Notes, particularly those on Security and rule of Law and Economic Recovery.

Paper

Human Rights

Human rights are key to stabilisation - both as a means and as an end in themselves. Although we need to promote universal adherence to human rights, we need to recognise that there can be different cultural and political approaches to dealing with human rights violations, especially during a fragile peace process. Human rights need to be embedded in planning and assessment for stabilisation; the selection of specific tools will depend on needs, opportunities and constraints in any particular context.

Paper

Governance and Conflict Indicators Report

A good results framework that enables programme progress to be effectively monitored and explained has never been more important, particularly in times of financial austerity. As a public sector organisation, DFID must have the capacity to prove that its budget is spent wisely, and the ability to demonstrate the impact and value of its programmes to core constituencies.

Governance and conflict programming form an important part of DFID’s global programme portfolio and account for a significant proportion of annual resource allocation (GPR, 2010). This is likely to grow as DFID commits to expand its presence in fragile and conflict-affected environments (DFID, 2009).

It is however widely acknowledged that the effects of governance and conflict interventions on poverty reduction or enduring peace and security are seldom direct and easy to measure. International governance datasets (such as the World Governance Index), whilst comprehensive and well-resourced, seldom have relevance at actual country level as their measurements are often set at higher objective levels, yet there is a paucity of useful programme level tools available to enhance measurement in this area.

In October 2010, ITAD was commissioned by the DFID Politics and the State Team to assess the quality of a suggested list of governance and conflict indicators as part of a wider contract to support elements of the Results Action Plan.

The indicators have been tested using a set of normative criteria that collectively aims to ensure the types of measurements included in the list and the corresponding data sources are fit for intended purpose. Although the study has to some extent been constrained by lack of time and available information, attention has given to interrogating the traction of indicators with existing programme results chains and underlying theories of change, including in contexts of fragility and conflict, such as Nigeria and Afghanistan.

Paper

Measuring the Impact and Value for Money of Governance & Conflict Programmes

In October 2010, ITAD was commissioned by the DFID Politics and the State team to conduct research and propose a way forward for Governance programmes in conducting value for money assessments as part of a consultancy on measuring the impact and value for money of DFID Governance programmes. The specific objective stated for our work on value for money (VFM) in the Terms of Reference was:

“To set out how value for money can best be measured in governance and conflict programming, and whether the suggested indicators have a role in this or not”.

This Report presents background on VFM from documentary research (section 2); explains the analytical framework that captures key concepts in VFM, and sets out options for improving VFM (section 3). It outlines one specific option, a “3 Es ratings and weightings approach to VFM” as presented to Governance and Conflict Advisers at a DFID Research Day on 25 November 2010, and includes their response plus some initial reactions from Finance and Corporate Performance Division (FCPD), particularly with regard to Business Case compatibility (section 4). Finally, the Report proposes ways in which initial findings can be refined and further developed to support Governance programming and build staff competence and confidence in conducting VFM assessments (section 5).

Paper

CGS Insights: Learning from Failure? British and European Approaches to Security and Justice Programming

Originally published on the SSR Resource Centre in March 2015, this article discusses recent evaluation reports of UK and EU security and justice programming and analyses alternative and innovative SSR strategies. The author argues that learning lessons from failure and understanding what is not working are essential tools of such approaches. The blog post provides a useful overview of new approaches to security and justice reform and has therefore been republished here as a CSG Insight.

Find more information and download the article in .pdf format here.

Paper

Civil-Military Working Paper 1-2013 | Police–military interaction in international peace and stability operations

In this document, the focus is on the interaction between the civilian police forces and the militaries of countries with Anglo–Peelian traditions of civilian policing, with a strong consent-based tradition and a tradition of professional volunteer military forces; examples are Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United Kingdom. The document identifies the appropriate divisions of responsibility for the various forces, taking into account the hostility of the environment, in order to show areas where coordination, cooperation or collaboration might be beneficial and to point to ways in which such interaction might be profitably pursued.

Read more about the research project and download the report here.

Paper

What Works in International Security and Justice Programming?

S_J_study_UK_mission

 

This preliminary scoping study was commissioned by the Department for International Development (DFID), with the aim of considering the security and justice sector reform efforts of 19 of the main Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – Development Assistance Council (OECD-DAC) donors. It focuses on the efforts of each nation’s foreign affairs, development, defence, and justice agencies, and provides an initial assessment of how policy and programming are linked, what evidence of good practice has been collected, and what knowledge and programming gaps exist currently.

Paper

The Thin Blue Line and The Impact of Terrorism on the Transformation of Law Enforcement

Originally published as a dissertation, this research by Valarie Findlay explores both the notion of terrorism and counterterrorism policies throughout history, asking whether the events of 9/11 were responsible for the transformation of law enforcement and a watershed of legislation in the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. The author uses qualitative and quantitative data, as well as the examination of key factors that set the foundational context and measurement criteria, such as relevant aspects in the history of law enforcement, the organisational structure of law enforcement, the incidence of militarisation, the powers of law enforcement and specific legislative responses to terrorist incidents, societal conflict and societal change.

Read the article online.

Paper

Countering Human Trafficking: The UK’s Efforts

This 2015 DCAF paper by Bernie Gravett of Specialist Policing Consulting UK analyses from a security sector perspective, the structure, politics and process of efforts to counter trafficking in human beings.

The United Kingdom (UK) is a destination country for men, women, and children primarily from Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe who are subjected to human trafficking for the purposes of sexual slavery and forced labour, including domestic servitude. Human trafficking is a subject of growing concern in the UK, which has therefore led the government to take positive action to improve legislation and punishment for trafficking and slavery offences. In 2015, the UK government passed the Modern Slavery Act to restructure criminal offences linked to trafficking, implement tougher sentencing and create a new position for a Modern Slavery Commissioner to oversee changes in the UK trafficking response. This legislation also gives support to victims through seizing traffickers’ assets and channeling some of that money towards reparations for victims. Furthermore, it created a new statutory defence for slavery or trafficking victims compelled to commit criminal offences. However, there is still a long way to go in terms of investing in dedicated police human trafficking training and investigation capacity as police forces in the UK are facing up to 45% budget cuts over an 8 year period lasting until 2018. 

For DCAF's full report on Countering Human Trafficking: The UK’s Efforts, kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Survey of Key Donors and Multilateral Organisations on Monitoring and Evaluation of Security Sector Reform: United Kingdom Case Study

This report provides an overview of the United Kingdom Government’s arrangements for monitoring and evaluating (M&E) the support it provides to security sector reform (SSR). It examines the M&E systems that already exist for similar types of work as well as looking at any specific treatment given to SSR, before also identifying outstanding needs, challenges and any trends and opportunities that exist for improving M&E in this area.

Paper

Le Brexit et la défense européenne: un choix de fond pour l’Union

Que le Brexit se déroule de manière ordonnée ou non, tôt ou tard les Européens et les Britanniques seront appelés à redéfinir leur relation. Les désaccords restent pourtant nombreux des deux côtés de la Manche. En matière de défense, ils sont surtout paradoxaux.

Depuis que Londres a signifié son intention de quitter l’UE, ses appels du pied pour conserver un rôle central au cœur de la PSDC ne se comptent pas. Tout à coup, le Royaume-Uni n’apparait plus comme cet acteur sceptique et désintéressé qui haussait systématiquement les épaules face au projet d’une défense européenne. Il se retrouve dans l’inconfortable position du demandeur.

La perspective s’est donc inversée. Les Européens ne doivent plus retenir les Britanniques par la veste, en essayant de les convaincre du bien-fondé de la PSDC. Désormais ils doivent éviter que, en sortant par la porte, le Royaume-Uni ne tente de revenir par la fenêtre.

Pour accéder à l'analyse, Le Brexit et la défense européenne: un choix de fond pour l’Union, veuillez suivre le lien.

Paper

Security Sector Reform and the Management of Defence Expenditure - A Conceptual Framework

This discussion paper stems from growing recognition of the linkages between sustainable development and security. It proposes a conceptual framework for addressing one aspect of security sector governance: the management of defence expenditure.

Specifically, the paper suggests that:

  • an approach based on strengthening the process by which defence expenditure is managed and monitored will be the most effective means of achieving appropriate levels of military expenditure;
  • policies, laws and structures in the security sector will reflect each country’s history, culture, legal framework, and institutions;
  • despite each country’s unique situation, a set of generic public sector management principles exist which should be applied to all components of the public sector, including the security sector, and consequently strengthening governance in the security and non-security portions of the public sector should proceed simultaneously, to the extent possible;
  • the pace and sequencing of efforts to strengthen the management of defence expenditure will vary across countries;
  • efforts to improve the efficiency of defence expenditure management should be set in the broadercontext of security sector reform; and
  • national ownership of the reform process and the strengthening of capacity to manage and oversee the defence sector are essential to ensure sustainability.
  • A number of next steps are proposed for considering the integration of security sector governance and better defence expenditure management into development policy.

To view this publication, follow this link.

Paper

Security Strategies Today : Trends and Perspectives

There have been considerable developments in security-policy thinking since the end of the Cold War, and a complex set of transnational threatsand challenges necessitates new security policies and strategies. Not only the attacks of 11 September 2001, but also the dark side of globalisation such as climate change, the global spread of dangerous technologies and international organised crime have changed the security perspective and policy procedures in recent years. Consequently, new
national-security strategies, white papers and security-policy documents have been drafted in order to take into account the changing security landscape.

On 6 April 2009, the Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP) welcomed a group of leading security experts for a seminar entitled “Security Strategies Today : Trends and Perspectives”. The goal of the seminar was to provide a forum for experts from different European states, major international powers and regional and international organisations to take stock of current security polices in the European region and beyond. The participants had an opportunity to assess the direction of security-policy thinking by analysing a number of key security-policy documents such as national-security strategies, defence concepts and white papers, among others. Assumptions regarding future threats were considered, as were a variety of drafting processes and methodologies.

More than 30 participants attended the seminar, including representatives of the Defence Ministries of Finland, Germany and Sweden, as well as representatives of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In addition to faculty members from the GCSP, regional and international experts from a range of academic and policy institutions participated, including speakers from PricewaterhouseCoopers, the International Affairs Institute (Rome), the Institute for International Strategic Studies (Beijing), the Royal Institute of International Relations (Brussels) and the Foundation for Strategic Studies (Paris).

Paper

Mapping Evolving Internal Roles of the Armed Forces

DCAF's newest addition to its SSR series has just been published, co-authored by Albrecht Schnabel and Marc Krupanski and titled "Mapping Evolving Internal Roles of the Armed Forces." It is widely assumed, at least from a Western perspective, that the armed forces provide national defence against external threats. In reality, within many consolidated Western democracies the armed forces are assuming an increasingly wide range of internal roles and tasks. These can include domestic security roles and the provision of humanitarian assistance in situations of natural or humanitarian catastrophe, often under the command and control of different civilian agencies. This SSR Paper seeks to make sense of this complex reality. Different internal roles of armed forces are analysed, drawing on the cases of Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Through carefully examining evolving internal roles and identifying patterns and lessons from these experiences, this SSR Paper provides an important contribution to understanding the evolving nature of contemporary armed forces.

Paper

Military Reporting needs New Fronts

This article discusses a growing tendency among news reporters allowing senior military officers and personnel to dictate defence coverage. 

Paper

National Security Decision-Making Structures and Security Sector Reform

This report was prepared for the UK’s Security Sector Development Advisory Team in June 2005. Its aim is to act as a basis for discussion and to provide an opportunity to learn from the successes and failures of intelligence and security legislation in various countries. Drawing on the body of academic work in this field and the knowledge of RAND staff, this report: provides a definition of intelligence; describes in detail how intelligence is produced; examines the role of intelligence in security sector reform; highlights the importance of control and accountability in intelligence structures; examines how six countries have developed and implemented intelligence legislation and associated reforms; and, finally, draws out a number of key lessons to be considered in any future security sector reform activity encompassing intelligence structures. The report outlines the choices that need to be made when designing or implementing legislative oversight on intelligence and security services. The report will be of interest to policy makers in countries seeking to reform their security sectors and to practitioners in the international aid community seeking to support security sector reform.

View National Security Decision-Making Structures and Security Sector Reform

Paper

Books

The EU, NATO and the Integration of Europe: Rules and Rhetoric

Why did Western European states agree to the enlargement of the EU and NATO? Frank Schimmelfennig analyzes the history of the enlargement process and develops a theoretical approach of 'rhetorical action' to explain why it occurred. While rationalist theory explains the willingness of East European states to join the NATO and EU, it does not explain why member states decided to admit them. Using original data, Schimmelfennig shows that expansion to the East can be understood in terms of liberal democratic community building. Drawing on the works of Jon Elster and Erving Goffman, he demonstrates that the decision to expand was the result of rhetorical action. Candidates and their supporters used arguments based on collective identity, norms and values of the Western community to shame opponents into acquiescing to enlargement. This landmark book makes an enormous contribution to theory in international relations and to the study of European politics.

Access full paper at http://www.cambridge.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item1170965/?site_locale=en_GB

Book

Police Performance Management: Practical Guidance for Police Authorities

Following performance management principles allows police authorities and forces to continuously improve the service that is provided to local people. This guidance (and its shorter companion reference guide) has been produced to assist police authorities to understand and develop their role – which is complementary to that of the force – in ensuring an effective police performance management regime.

The guide is structured around ten hallmarks of effective performance management developed from research that involved all police authorities. The guide includes case studies and examples provided by police authorities to illustrate the hallmarks in good practice. Commitment to achieving the standards conveyed in the hallmarks will make a significant contribution to the effectiveness of police authorities in fulfilling their important role in police performance management. The guide is intended to form a comprehensive repository of good practice. 

Book

Security Activities of External Actors in Africa

Security Activities of External Actors in Africa  is the first book to systematically map the security-related policies, strategies and activities of major external actors in Africa. It assesses the involvement of seven key external actors—China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States, the European Union and the United Nations—in sub-Saharan Africa. It pays special attention to military presences, military interventions, contributions to peace operations, arms supplies, defence and security agreements, military training, and other forms of military and security assistance.

Mapping the diverse security-related activities of external actors in Africa is an important first step towards understanding Africa’s evolving security environment. This book takes that step.

Book

The Role of Parliament in Police Governance

As the primary agency for law enforcement, the police operates at close proximity to the public and exerts significant influence over the security of individuals and communities through its behaviours and performance. Therefore, ensuring accountability of both the individuals and institutions of the police is a fundamental condition for good governance of the security sector in democratic societies. The parliament, as the highest representative body in a democratic system, plays a significant role in maintaining police accountability.
The objective of the edited volume on “The Role of Parliament in Police Governance: Lessons Learned from Asia and Europe” is to put forward good practices and recommendations for improving police accountability, with an emphasis on the strengthening of the role of parliament in police governance. The comparative analysis includes insights and lessons learned from eight country case studies including Belgium, Germany, India, Indonesia, the Netherlands, Philippines, Thailand and the United Kingdom. The findings of the cases studies can be taken into account when analysing and considering options for improving the accountability of the police to parliament as well as strengthening independent oversight bodies and parliament-police liaison mechanisms. However, it must be emphasised that these good practices always need to be adapted to the exigencies of the local context.

Book

Justice As Prevention

Countries emerging from armed conflict or authoritarian rule face difficult questions about what to do with public employees who perpetrated past human rights abuses and the institutional structures that allowed such abuses to happen. Justice as Prevention: Vetting Public Employees in Transitional Societiesexamines the transitional reform known as "vetting" -- the process by which abusive or corrupt employees are excluded from public office. More than a means of punishing individuals, vetting represents an important transitional justice measure aimed at reforming institutions and preventing the recurrence of abuses. The book is the culmination of a multiyear project headed by the International Center for Transitional Justice that included human rights lawyers, experts on police and judicial reform, and scholars of transitional justice and reconciliation. It features case studies of Argentina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Czech Republic, El Salvador, the former German Democratic Republic, Greece, Hungary, Poland, and South Africa, as well as chapters on due process, information management, and intersections between other institutional reforms.

Book

Parliaments as Peacebuilders in Conflict-Affected Countries

The changing nature of conflict and the increase in intrastate conflict during the 1990s, followed by its slow decline since the turn of the century, have led to changing priorities in the field of conflict resolution. No longer is the international community solely concerned with resolving existing conflicts; it also is managing emerging conflicts to ensure that they do not flare into violent conflict.This book outlines some of the strategies parliaments and parliamentarians can adopt to reduce the incidence of conflict and effectively manage conflict when it does emerge. It is hoped that by developing a better understanding of the nexus between parliament, poverty, and conflict parliamentarians will be more aware of the array of options open to them as they seek to contribute to conflict management in conflict-affected societies.

Book

Other Documents

Police Reform in Northern Ireland

This presentation was delivered at the September 2013 Workshop on Police Reform and Development held in Tripoli by the Libyan Ministry of Interior and UNSMIL.

Briefly covers the build-up to the 'Troubles', the 1998 Belfast Agreement, application of possible lessons from Northern Ireland to the Libyan context, and a useful graphical overview of the reform process.

Also available in Arabic.

Other Document