WESTERN AFRICA

WESTERN AFRICA

Case Studies

Genre et Sécurité au Mali - état des lieux et nouvelles perspectives

Selected Resources

Publication: Politique Nationale Genre du Mali (PNG-Mali), Republic of Mali, Minister for the Promotion of Women, Children and Family. 

Dans cette étude réalisée pour DCAF en collaboration avec le programme « Gouvernance partagée pour la sécurité et la paix au Mali » (PGPSP), Fatimata Dicko-Zouboye et Kadidia Sangaré-Coulibaly présentent un état des lieux de la prise en compte de la dimension genre dans le secteur de la sécurité au Mali. L’étude présente une cartographie des acteurs impliqués dans la promotion de la sécurité et de la paix au Mali, incluant les forces armées et la gendarmerie nationale, les forces de police, de protection civile et de gestion des frontières, le secteur juridique, le secteur pénal, la société civile, les organisations et réseaux régionaux, les organisations internationales et les partenaires au développement. Pour chacune de ces institutions, les auteures tracent un portrait des modalités de prise en charge des questions de genre, ainsi que des bonnes pratiques et obstacles qui y sont associés. Enfin, des propositions relatives à la place du genre dans la promotion de la sécurité et de la paix sont également énoncées afin d’accompagner le gouvernement et les autres parties prenantes dans la définition et la mise en œuvre de politiques d’intervention pertinentes.

DCAF, PGPSP 2011

case study

Genre et sécurité au Sénégal

Selected Resources

Audio: Women as Soldiers? Interview on Gender Mainstreaming in the Senegalese Armed Forces, West Africa Democracy Radio interview with Elisabeth Feleke, Regional Program Manager for West Africa for the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS)

Dans cette étude, réalisée pour DCAF et en collaboration avec l’Alliance pour la migration, le leadership et le développement (AMLD), Fatou Sarr de l’Université Cheikh Anta Diop à Dakar présente un état des lieux de la prise en compte de la dimension genre dans le secteur de la sécurité au Sénégal. L’étude présente notamment une cartographie des acteurs impliqués dans la gestion de la sécurité, incluant les forces armées et la gendarmerie nationale, la police et le groupement national des sapeurs pompiers, les corps paramilitaires, le ministère de l’Intérieur, le ministère des Forces armées, le ministère de la Justice, le ministère de la Famille, de la Sécurité alimentaire, de l’Entreprenariat féminin, de la Micro finance et de la Petite enfance, le parlement, la société civile, les organisations et réseaux régionaux, les organisations internationales et les missions diplomatiques et militaires. Pour chacune de ces institutions, l’auteure trace un portrait des modalités de prise en charge des questions de genre, des bonnes pratiques et des obstacles rencontrés. Enfin, des propositions relatives aux questions de genre et à la sécurité sont également énoncées afin d’accompagner le gouvernement et les autres parties prenantes dans la définition et la mise en œuvre de politiques d’intervention pertinentes.

DCAF 2010

case study

Tools

Tool 2 : Security Sector Reform Programming

The conduct of an SSR process requires translating a political, national vision of security into an operational programme and defining the different concrete actions needed to generate the desired societal change and improve security for all. SSR programming provides tools both to determine the nature of the change sought in the functioning of the security sector and to plan implementation in a structured manner that is measurable over time.

Tool 2 of the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa addresses the successive programming steps that enable the development and rolling out of a context-relevant SSR programme. These steps range from an initial needs assessment to the setting up of coordination mechanisms aimed at ensuring overall coherence of national SSR efforts. The Tool offers practical advice for prioritising and sequencing reform actions, budgeting the programme and mobilising the resources necessary for its implementation, establishing viable and efficient management mechanisms, coordinating national and international actors involved in the implementation of the programme and developing a communication strategy to support transparency and sustain national ownership.

For more information on Tool 2 : Security Sector Reform Programming, kindly follow the link to the DCAF website.

Follow the links to access the other documents in the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa: 

Tool 1: Political Leadership and National Ownership of Security Sector Reform Processes

Tool 4: Effective Management of External Support to Security Sector Reform

Tool 6: Civil Society Involvement in Security Sector Reform and Governance

This publication is also available in français and português.

Tool

Ferramenta 1 : Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta ferramenta 1 « Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança », parte da « Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental », fornece orientações práticas para as autoridades nacionais da África Ocidental sobre como abordar a RSS de uma forma que demonstre liderança e garanta uma apropriação nacional inclusiva. Ressalva a importância da vontade política na formulação de políticas relacionadas com o sector de segurança, a necessidade de envolver actores não-estatais não só na fase inicial, mas também durante todo o processo de reforma, e a necessidade de articular a RSS com outras políticas e reformas à escala nacional. A ferramenta também se debruça sobre o papel desempenhado pela CEDEAO, que apoia os estados-membros na construção de processos de reforma endógenos. Aborda igualmente os desafios práticos que as autoridades nacionais poderão vir a enfrentar na concepção e implementação de processos de RSS, propondo também soluções para enfrentá-los.

A ferramenta pretende ser um recurso para os responsáveis pela tomada de decisões estratégicas, funcionários governamentais, consultores nacionais e outros profissionais de RSS. Também disponibilizará aos membros do parlamento, a outras instituições de supervisão, às organizações da sociedade civil (OSC) e aos parceiros de desenvolvimento uma visão geral das responsabilidades que o poder executivo tem na RSS e sobre como garantir a apropriação nacional ao longo do processo.

Para maiores informações sobre a Ferramenta 1 : Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança, siga o link para o website do DCAF.

Por favor, siga o link para ter acesso às outros documentos da Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental: 

Ferramenta 2 : Programação da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 4 : Gestão Eficaz do Apoio Externo à Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 6 : Envolvimento da Sociedade Civil na Governação e Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta é a versão em Português da publicação. It is also available in English et disponible en français.

Tool

Tool 4: Effective Management of External Support to Security Sector Reform

Tool 4 of the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa by DCAF addresses key challenges that West African states may face when extending their cooperation relationships to the field of security governance. It aims to provide ECOWAS member states with practical guidance on how to manage external assistance to SSR in a way that supports a national vision, ensures cost-efficiency, enforces mutual accountability and strives for sustainable results. It is mainly aimed at national administrations of ECOWAS member states specifically in charge of planning, managing and overseeing internal and external resource allocation to SSR, but can also be useful for oversight stakeholders monitoring the national security agenda, the national budget or cooperation policies, such as the media, academic research centres and civil society observatories and organisations.

SSR is a costly process, which requires an intense and long-term budgetary commitment from countries undertaking it. The financial burden of this process can weigh particularly heavily on the national budgets of West African states facing the challenges of economic development. The increasing readiness of the international community to support SSR efforts represents an opportunity for countries willing to redefine their security system, but also comes with a number of political, strategic and technical challenges from a national point of view.

For more information on the Tool 4 : Effective Management of External Support to Security Sector Reform, kindly follow the link to the DCAF website.

Follow the links to access the other documents in the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa: 

Tool 1: Political Leadership and National Ownership of Security Sector Reform Processes

Tool 2: Security Sector Reform Programming

Tool 6: Civil Society Involvement in Security Sector Reform and Governance

This publication is also available in français and português.

Tool

Tool 6: Civil Society Involvement in Security Sector Reform and Governance

Tool 6 of the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa addresses the gaps in knowledge and skills that hinder the involvement of West African civil society actors in public oversight of the security sector and provides CSOs of the region with practical advice and guidance on how to strengthen their capacity for action and optimise the impact of their contributions to SSR and SSG.

Representative and credible civil society organisations (CSOs) are integral stakeholders in the democratic governance of the security sector. They can contribute by influencing security policy so that it better reflects the security needs of men, women, boys and girls; informing the people about security-related matters, and the role and rights of citizens; supporting constructive relations between security institutions and civilians; supporting public institutions with specialised expertise, etc. However, civil society actors are sometimes unaware of their role, lack the tools and skills to fully engage in this field or struggle to identify entry points. Their potential contribution is therefore often underexploited.

For more information on the Tool 6: Civil Society Involvement in Security Sector Reform and Governance, kindly follow the link to the DCAF website.

Follow the links to access the other documents in the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa: 

Tool 1: Political Leadership and National Ownership of Security Sector Reform Processes

Tool 2: Security Sector Reform Programming

Tool 4: Effective Management of External Support to Security Sector Reform

The publication is also available in français and português.

Tool

Ferramenta 6 : Envolvimento da Sociedade Civil na Governação e Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta ferramenta 6 « Envolvimento da Sociedade Civil na Governação e Reforma do Sector de Segurança », parte da « Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental », visa colmatar as lacunas em matéria de conhecimento e competências que impedem o pleno envolvimento dos intervenientes da sociedade civil oeste-africana no controlo do sector de segurança. Fornece a estes intervenientes aconselhamento e orientação práticos que se destinam a reforçar a sua capacidade de acção nesta área. Embora se destine principalmente aos intervenientes oeste-africanos da sociedade civil com intervenção local, nacional e regional, incluindo organizações de meios de comunicação social, esta ferramenta pode igualmente servir de guia à Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Ocidental (CEDEAO) e a todos os seus estados-membros, bem como aos parceiros internacionais envolvidos na reforma e governação do sector de segurança, para promover a tomada em consideração por parte destes intervenientes do papel da sociedade civil na reforma e governação do sector de segurança.

A participação activa de uma sociedade civil empenhada, competente e diversificada no controlo público do sector de segurança reforça a confiança dos cidadãos e cidadãs nos mecanismos estatais que garantem a sua segurança.

No entanto, os intervenientes da sociedade civil nem sempre têm consciência do seu papel e das suas responsabilidades para com os mecanismos democráticos de governação da segurança. Por vezes, carecem igualmente de ferramentas conceptuais e competências práticas para participar activamente nesta área, ou têm dificuldade em estabelecer parcerias construtivas com as instituições estatais de segurança ou outros intervenientes pertinentes, bem como em identificar pontos de entrada adequados para se envolverem de forma construtiva na governação de segurança. O seu potencial de contribuição está subexplorado.

Para maiores informações sobre a Ferramenta 6 : Envolvimento da Sociedade Civil na Governação e Reforma do Sector de Segurança, siga o link para o website do DCAF.

Por favor, siga o link para ter acesso às outros documentos da Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental: 

Ferramenta 1 : Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 2 : Programação da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 4 : Gestão Eficaz do Apoio Externo à Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta é a versão em Português da publicação. It is also available in English et disponible en français.

Tool

Videos

Panel Discussion - SSR in West Africa - Introduction - 2010-12-01

Comments from Mark Downes, Head of ISSAT, to open the Panel Discussion on SSR in West Africa and to introduce the panel members.

video

Panel Discussion - SSR in West Africa - General (ret) Lamine Cissé - 2010-12-01

 General Lamine Cissé of Senegal

  • Educated at Saint-Cyr and National Defense University, Washington DC
  • In 1996, he was appointed Chief of Defence Staff
  • In 1997, named Minister of the Interior of Senegal
  • In 2001, named head of the UN Mission in CAR
  • From 2007-08 was head of UN office for West Africa
  • Recent lead for AU/ECOWAS/UN SSR Assessment Mission to Guinea.
video

Panel Discussion - SSR in West Africa - Fernando Ponz - 2010-12-01

Fernando Ponz, Deputy Head for West Africa, European Commission

  • Joined the Spanish civil service in 1986
  • In 2002 he joined the Commission’s External Service Directorate in Brussels, working i.a. on the design and development of the future common EU External Action Service
  • In 2005 he was appointed Head of Section for political affairs and pre-accession at the Delegation of the Commission to Bulgaria
  • Mr Ponz is a graduate in Political Science specialized in Foreign Affairs. He is a former Fulbright grantee, a Salzburg Seminar and a US German Marshall fund fellow
video

Panel Discussion - SSR in West Africa - Brigadier General (ret) Kellie Conteh - 2010-12-01

Brigadier General (ret'd) Kellie Conteh from Sierra Leone,  Head of the Office of National Security Sierra Leone since 2002, talks about SSR in Sierra Leone, which is often seen as a success story for SSR. Specifically:

  1. Sierra Leone's historical setting - how it came to realise that it need SSR after 11 years of conflict
  2. what Sierra Leone was looking for to reform the security sector
  3. strategies developped by Sierra Leone to tackle reform.

The audio-only version of this video is available here.

video

Panel Discussion - SSR in West Africa - Dr. Norman Mlambo - 2010-12-01

Dr. Norman Mlambo SSR focal point at AU Commission - Peace and Security Department

  • Peace and Security Department, African Union Commission
  • Formerly, chief research specialist at the Africa Institute of South Africa
video

Au-delà de l’idéologie et de l’appât du gain: trajectoires des jeunes vers la violence.

L’idéologie ou le chômage n’expliquent pas l’engagement des jeunes dans de nouvelles formes de violence. Contrairement aux idées largement acceptées, la recherche d’Interpeace démontre en effet que ces éléments se révèlent être des facteurs largement secondaires.

Pour accéder à la vidéo Au-delà de l’idéologie et de l’appât du gain: trajectoires des jeunes vers la violence, veuillez suivre le lien.

video

Africa's Contemporary Security Trends

Joseph Siegle, Director of Research for the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, delivers an analysis and recommendations as regards the security situation in Africa and the main challenges in the years to come.  

For details and full access to the video Africa's Contemporary Security Trends, kindly follow the link.

video

Podcasts

Afrique de l'Ouest : les djihadistes tentent-ils une "course à la mer"?

Parmi les questions après l'enlèvement et la libération des deux touristes français : l'ampleur de la présence jihadiste dans la région. Depuis des mois le Burkina Faso est sous forte pression, le Bénin a connu sa première attaque armée. Selon certains, quatre Etats du Golfe de Guinée sont menacés.

Malgré la guerre antiterroriste menée par les forces de Barkhane au Mali, les groupes djihadistes ne cessent de se déplacer et de gagner du terrain en Afrique de l'Ouest. Liés à Al-Qaida ou à l'Etat Islamique, ils alimentent l'insécurité avec des groupes criminels dans une bande spécifique du Sahel, à savoir la Mauritanie, le Mali, le Niger, le Tchad, le Burkina Faso et le Bénin.

Pour écouter le podcast, Afrique de l'Ouest : les djihadistes tentent-ils une "course à la mer"?, veuillez suivre le lien.

Podcast

Policy and Research Papers

Learning from West African Experiences in Security Sector Governance

21.04.2016_experiences ouest africaines

Many efforts have been undertaken to address dysfunctional security sector governance in West Africa. However, security sector reform (SSR) has fallen short of radical – transformational – change to the fundamental structures of power and governance in the region. Looking more closely at specific examples of SSR in six West African countries, Learning from West African Experiences in Security Sector Governance explores both progress and reversals in efforts by national stakeholders and their international partners to positively influence security sector governance dynamics. Written by eminent national experts based on their personal experiences of these reform contexts, this study offers new insights and practical lessons that should inform processes to improve democratic security sector governance in West Africa and beyond.

For full access to Learning from West African Experiences in Security Sector Governance, kindly follow the link.

Paper

Implementing the ECOWAS Conflict Prevention Framework: Prospects and Challenges

As part of the search for a lasting solution to the numerous security problems that confront the West African sub-region, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), in 2008, adopted1 the ECOWAS Conflict Prevention Framework (ECPF), to serve as strategic framework for improving conflict prevention and human security. The adoption of the ECPF is an addition to several initiatives in the form of key protocols and conventions that aim at building a stable West Africa as prerequisite for social, political and economic development.

Some of the earlier initiatives by ECOWAS to promote stability in the sub-region include the Protocol on Non-Aggression (1978), the Protocol on Mutual Assistance on Defence (1982); ECOWAS Revised Treaty (1993); the Protocol Relating to the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peacekeeping and Security (hereafter the Mechanism); Declaration of Political Principles (1991); and the Supplementary Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance (2001). Over the years, with the mandate provided under these protocols, ECOWAS has made significant contributions to the promotion of peace and security in Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, where violent conflicts took place.

Also, ECOWAS’ preventive diplomacy initiatives averted largescale violence in countries such as Niger, Guinea and Togo. Given that several initiatives have been undertaken by ECOWAS to promote conflict prevention since it was founded in 1975, it is important to raise a number of questions with regard to the ECPF. First, how relevant is the ECPF in respect of conflict prevention? Second, how different is it from existing initiatives that equally seek to promote sub-regional stability? Third, how is the ECPF to be implemented? And, what are the prospects and challenges of its successful implementation? This policy paper answers the above questions by examining the ECPF. It also makes policy recommendations on steps that need to be taken to ensure the successful implementation of the ECPF.

The paper concludes that the ECPF is an important initiative which when implemented would contribute to an improvement in human security, and calls for broader stakeholder participation in its implementation.

Paper

Security Sector Reform and Governance Processes in West Africa: From Concepts to Reality

In light of the rapidly changing and evolving security situation in West Africa, this paper analyses ECOWAS policy documents relating to SSR and highlights the challenges of translating norms to practice. It assesses ECOWAS’s concrete support to SSR processes in the region, both as a partner and as a leading actor and outlines challenges to overcome and opportunities to be seized by ECOWAS in its role in supporting SSR. Finally, it puts forward recommendations to key stakeholders on how a Regional Framework for Security Sector Reform and Governance could serve as a platform for SSR support and a tool for conflict prevention and sustainable development.

The paper can also be downloaded in English, French or Portuguese at https://www.dcaf.ch/security-sector-reform-and-governance-processes-west-africa-concepts-reality

Paper

Reforma e Governação do Setor de Segurança na África ocidental: Dos Conceitos à Realidade

À luz da rápida mutação e evolução da situação de segurança na África Ocidental, este artigo analisa as políticas da CEDEAO relativas à SSR e destaca os desafios de implementação das normas estabelecidas.  Avalia ainda o apoio concreto prestado pela CEDEAO aos processos de SSR na região, tanto do seu envolvimento como parceiro, ou como ator principal; enumera os desafios a superar e as oportunidades a aproveitar pela CEDEAO, no que concerne ao seu apoio à SSR; e apresenta recomendações aos principais interessados sobre a forma como um Quadro Regional para a Reforma e Governação do Setor da Segurança poderá servir de plataforma de apoio à SSR, e de ferramenta para a prevenção de conflitos e desenvolvimento sustentável.

Paper

Oversight Effectiveness and Political Will: Some Lessons from West Africa

The purpose of the present note is to advance two theoretical claims. The first claim proposed is that the impact of the availability of oversight tools and of the most broadly understood legislative capacity (availability of material, technical, financial resources; availability of well-trained staff) on the effectiveness with which legislative oversight is performed is conditional. The second claim put forward, after reviewing a rich body of work on executive–legislative relations and legislative oversight in West Africa, is that, of the various conditions that promote or prevent the effective use of oversight tools and capacity, political will is the single most important. These claims have both theoretical and practical relevance, for if political will is as important as is claimed for the effective performance of the oversight function, then international organisations may have to reconsider their approach to legislative strengthening.

To access the article, please click here.

Paper

Corruption as a threat to stability and peace

This study by Transparency International UK and Transparency International Germany stresses how corruption hinders stability in post-conflict states and undermines peace worldwide. It also shows a robust connection between corruption risk and violent conflict and looks at evidence of this link in detail through case studies of Afghanistan, Kosovo and West Africa. 
Based on Transparency International’s earlier work on corruption, conflict and peacekeeping, the report also examines the structures and practices of international organisations for addressing corruption in fragile and conflict-affected environments. 

Paper

Security for All: West Africa’s Good Practices on Gender in the Security Sector

Despite ongoing efforts to improve the accountability and effectiveness of the security sector in West Africa, the different security and justice needs of men, women, boys and girls are often marginalised and women remain largely excluded from security and defence decision-making processes. Nevertheless, there are examples of innovative initiatives taken across West Africa to integrate gender issues into security sector reform (SSR) processes and security sector institutions (SSIs).

This report highlights the lessons identified and country-specific examples shared during the regional conference “Security for All: West Africa’s Good Practices on Gender in the Security Sector” held in Saly, Senegal, 22 -24 June 2010. Organised by UNOWA and DCAF in partnership with the ECOWAS Gender Development Centre, MARWOPNET and AMLD, this working-level conference brought together over seventy gender and security sector practitioners and researchers from West Africa. The report includes guidance and examples on eight interconnected topics:

1. Gender assessments of the security sector
2. Provision of security and justice services to women and men
3. Civil society oversight: collaboration between women’s organisations, gender machineries and SSIs
4. Gender and security policies
5. Internal oversight mechanisms
6. Recruitment, retention and advancement of female security sector personnel
7. Female security sector staff associations
8. Gender training

For translation in French, click here.

Paper

The Security Sector and Gender in West Africa

This report aims to systematically document the status of gender integration within the security sectors in 14 Member States of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

The report is designed to be a resource for people working in, or with, security sector institutions; for those interested in governance and development in West Africa; and for those involved in gender-related issues. It combines information gathered by in-country researchers, interviews, document analysis and desk research. Much of the data in this report has never before been published or compared across countries in the region.

The survey is guided by the following two questions: Are security sector institutions providing adequate response to the different security and justice needs of men, women, boys and girls? What steps have been taken to create internally equitable, representative and non-discriminatory institutions?

The report contains three main sections: an introduction, a summary and analysis of findings, and individual country profiles. The introduction provides background on the survey rationale, methodology and research challenges. The summary and analysis of findings offers a cross-country and cross-institution analysis of the survey findings, and includes a list of recommendations. The 14 extensive country profiles present easy-to-read yet detailed information structured by 101 indicators on national governance, police services, armed forces and gendarmerie, the justice system and penal services.

The complete report, as well as individual country profiles, can be accessed online here.

For more information, contact gender@dcaf.ch

Paper

Ammunition controls, the ATT, and Africa: Challenges, Requirements, and Scope for Action

There is no consensus on whether ammunition should be included in the scope of the international Arms Trade Treaty (ATT). Most states support its inclusion and point towards the negative impact of irresponsible and poorly controlled transfers of ammunition. The insecurity and tremendous human suffering associated with such transfers in the context of armed violence in Africa are a case in point.
 
 A few states, however, oppose the inclusion of ammunition in the ATT and argue that controlling international ammunition transfers would be unfeasible and highly cost-intensive. This report discusses the challenges of ammunition controls in Africa against the background of the international discussions on the ATT. It demonstrates that concerns regarding ammunition-inclusion in the ATT are unfounded. It also argues that complementary action will be required by African stakeholders and their international partners to strengthen ammunition controls in the region.
 
 Holger Anders is a consultant on arms control with several years of work experience in sub-Saharan Africa, including as expert monitoring the implementation of a UN arms embargo. He holds post-graduate degrees in peace studies and international relations and has published and presented widely at global and regional levels in Europe and Africa on the scope for action to combat illicit trafficking of arms and ammunition.

Paper

Learning from West African Experiences in Security Sector Governance

21.04.2016_experiences ouest africaines

Many efforts have been undertaken to address dysfunctional security sector governance in West Africa. However, security sector reform (SSR) has fallen short of radical – transformational – change to the fundamental structures of power and governance in the region. Looking more closely at specific examples of SSR in six West African countries, Learning from West African Experiences in Security Sector Governance explores both progress and reversals in efforts by national stakeholders and their international partners to positively influence security sector governance dynamics. Written by eminent national experts based on their personal experiences of these reform contexts, this study offers new insights and practical lessons that should inform processes to improve democratic security sector governance in West Africa and beyond.

For full access to Learning from West African Experiences in Security Sector Governance, kindly follow the link.

Paper

La criminalité environnementale en Afrique de l’Ouest: pratiques et enjeux

Si le thème de la «criminalité environnementale» est désormais au cœur de l’agenda politique international, qu’en est-il spécifiquement en Afrique de l’Ouest? L' objectif de cette note est d’esquisser une cartographie des pratiques et enjeux associés à la criminalité environnementale dans cette région du monde.

Pour un accès à l'analyse complète,   La criminalité environnementale en Afrique de l’Ouest: pratiques et enjeux veuillez suivre le lien.

Paper

Monitoring de la stabilité régionale dans le bassin sahélien et en Afrique de l'Ouest (Octobre à décembre 2016)

Ce monitoring trimestriel, publié par le GRIP depuis 2011, est réalisé dans le cadre d’un projet intitulé « Contribution à l’amélioration de la sécurité humaine, à la prévention des conflits et au renforcement de l’état de droit en Afrique sub-saharienne », financé par le ministère des Affaires étrangères du Grand-Duché du Luxembourg. Il a pour but de suivre la situation sécuritaire en Afrique de l’Ouest avec un accent plus particulier sur le Burkina Faso, la Côte d’Ivoire, la Guinée, le Mali, le Niger et le Sénégal. Il se penche sur les questions de sécurité interne au sens large, les tensions régionales, la criminalité et les trafics transfrontaliers.

Pour accéder à l'étude Monitoring de la stabilité régionale dans le bassin sahélien et en Afrique de l'Ouest , veuillez cliquer sur le lien.

Paper

DDR and SSR in War-to-Peace Transition

While disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and security sector reform (SSR) have become integral statebuilding tools in post-conflict states, the existing empirical literature examining their relationship has focused on supply-side considerations related to the programming of both processes. In practice, though, DDR and SSR are implemented in the wider context of war-to-peace transitions where the state is attempting to establish a monopoly over the use of force and legitimize itself in the eyes of domestic and international communities. This paper therefore assumes that to identify opportunities and constraints for establishing closer practical linkages between DDR and SSR it is important to take the local politics into consideration. It examines two past externally driven peacebuilding interventions in West Africa, namely Liberia and Sierra Leone, featuring cases in which the central state had essentially fragmented or collapsed. Through this comparative analysis, the paper aims to provide a stepping-stone for future studies examining demand-side considerations of DDR and SSR in post-conflict contexts.

To access the full report  DDR and SSR in War-to-Peace Transition, kindly click on the link.

This paper is part of DCAF's SSR Papers series. Click on the link for more DCAF publications on security sector reform.

Paper

Le Fonds fiduciaire d’urgence et son volet Sahel: l’immigration comme nouvel enjeu de sécurité et développement

Cette note vise à cerner les spécificités, les atouts et les éventuels biais de ce nouvel outil de gestion des migrations, à dresser un rapide bilan de sa mise en œuvre et enfin, à revenir sur l’évolution contemporaine de la politique européenne au Sahel.

Pour accéder à l'étude Le Fonds fiduciaire d’urgence et son volet Sahel: l’immigration comme nouvel enjeu de sécurité et développement, veuillez suivre le lien.

Paper

Leçons sur la prévention de génocides en Afrique depuis le génocide du Rwanda

Dans cette série de questions/réponses, Samantha Lakin, chercheuse, examine les leçons à retenir des 23 années écoulées depuis le génocide du Rwanda tandis que les atrocités de masse ne cessent de se répéter en Afrique. Ces leçons pourraient contribuer à éviter de futures atrocités, notamment par une inclusion accrue des acteurs du secteur de la sécurité.

Pour accéder à l'étude Leçons sur la prévention de génocides en Afrique depuis le génocide du Rwanda, veuillez suivre le lien.

Paper

Les mécanismes traditionnels de gestion des conflits en Afrique subsaharienne

L’ambition du présent article est d’offrir des clés de compréhension des principes qui sous-tendent et des acteurs qui animent le fonctionnement des mécanismes traditionnels mobilisés en Afrique de l’Ouest francophone afin de concourir à la gestion des conflits. En évitant d’idéaliser le fonctionnement de ces mécanismes, il s’agit d’évaluer leur légitimité, leur opérationnalité et leur pertinence pour satisfaire les besoins de sécurité des populations ouest-africaines dans le contexte sociopolitique actuel. Après avoir défini ce qui est ici entendu par « mécanismes traditionnels » et déterminé leur périmètre d’intervention, la première partie du présent texte se penche sur les caractéristiques communes à la plupart de ceux qui sont mobilisés en Afrique de l’Ouest ainsi que sur les différents acteurs politiques et sociaux habilités à procéder à leur activation. Une deuxième partie envisage le fonctionnement et l’actualité des mécanismes traditionnels de gestion des conflits dans le contexte de la Côte d’Ivoire. Enfin, l’étude cherche à déterminer dans quelle mesure les acteurs internationaux présents sur le continent africain peuvent ou non s’appuyer sur ces mécanismes traditionnels dans le cadre des interventions qu’ils y mènent.

Pour accéder à l'étude Les mécanismes traditionnels de gestion des conflits en Afrique subsaharienne, veuillez suivre le lien. 

Paper

Logistics Partnerships in Peace Operations

Logistics support is both critical to the safety and health of peacekeepers and vital to success at every stage of a peace operation—especially in the high-threat environments where both UN and regional peace operations are increasingly deployed. Contemporary peace operations are based on logistics partnerships, with support provided by a range of actors including states, international organizations, and commercial contractors.

This report focuses on logistics partnerships that support UN operations and regional peace operations in Africa. Drawing on two UN missions and fifteen regional operations in Africa, it describes, compares, and traces the evolution of these two kinds of logistics partnerships and provides recommendations for improving them. 

For full access to Logistics Partnerships in Peace Operations, kindly follow the link.

Paper

Monitoring de la stabilité régionale dans le bassin sahélien et en Afrique de l’Ouest – Avril à juin 2018

Ce monitoring trimestriel, publié par le GRIP depuis 2011, a pour but de suivre la situation sécuritaire en Afrique de l’Ouest avec un accent plus particulier sur le Burkina Faso, la Côte d’Ivoire, la Guinée, le Mali, le Niger et le Sénégal. Il se penche sur les questions de sécurité interne au sens large, les tensions régionales, la criminalité et les trafics transfrontaliers.

Afin d'accéder à la ressource, Monitoring de la stabilité régionale dans le bassin sahélien et en Afrique de l’Ouest, veuillez suivre le lien.

Paper

Towards a Code of Conduct for Armed and Security Forces in Africa

The aim of this paper is to account for the evolution of the draft Code, and to examine its relationship (if any) to similar initiatives within and beyond Africa. Following this brief introduction therefore, the paper attempts to place the draft Code within the context of general trends in civil-military relations in Africa. It then traces the evolutionary process of the African Code, within the context of similar and related initiatives and processes in Africa. The paper also identifies the main provisions of the Code. It compares the OSCE Code to the draft African Code, pointing out similarities and differences and the extent to which the former was a model for the latter. The paper then identifies matters arising in the drive to achieve the adoption and implementation of the present draft African Code. The paper is concluded with recommendations which could enrich the CoC and create the basis for more viable articulation of the agenda of democratic control of armedand security forces in Africa.

Details.

Paper

Monitoring of regional Stability in the Sahel region and in West Africa – April to June 2019

This monitoring aims to monitor the security situation in West Africa with a focus on Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. It examines in particular broad internal security issues, regional tensions, and cross-border and transnational crimes.

For full access to the report, Monitoring of regional Stability in the Sahel region and in West Africa – April to June 2019 kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Books

Back to the Roots: Security Sector Reform and Development

There has now been more than a decade of conceptual work, policy development and operational activity in the field of security sector reform (SSR). To what extent has its original aim to support and facilitate development been met? The different contributions to this volume address this question, offering a range of insights on the theoretical and practical relevance of the security-development nexus in SSR. They examine claims of how and whether SSR effectively contributes to achieving both security and development objectives. In particular, the analyses presented in this volume provide a salutary lesson that development and security communities need to take each other’s concerns into account when planning, implementing and evaluating their activities. The book offers academics, policy-makers and practitioners within the development and security communities relevant lessons, suggestions and practical advice for approaching SSR as an instrument that serves both security and development objectives.

Book

Reform And Reconstruction of the Security Sector

Security sector reform (SSR) is widely recognized as key to conflict prevention, peace-building, sustainable development, and democratization. SSR has gained most practical relevance in the context of post-conflict reconstruction of so-called "failed states'" and states emerging from violent internal or inter-state conflict. As this volume shows, almost all states need to reform their security sectors to a greater or lesser extent, according to the specific security, political and socio-economic contexts, as well as in response to the new security challenges resulting from globalization and post-9/11 developments. Alan Bryden is a researcher at the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. Heiner Hnggi is assistant director of the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.

Book

Security Sector Governance in Francophone West Africa

Experience shows that successful democratic transitions need to be underpinned by a security sector that is effective, well managed, and accountable to the state and its citizens. This is why it is so important to carefully examine security sector governance dynamics in contexts where security has often remained a 'reserved domain.' Understanding the issues and perspectives that divide political elites, the security sector, and citizens is the only way to develop security sector reform programs that are legitimate and sustainable at the national level. Through drawing on the close contextual knowledge of practitioners, researchers, and diverse local actors, this book supports this goal by analyzing security sector governance dynamics in each of the nine Francophone countries within West Africa. From this basis, strengths and weaknesses are analyzed, local capacities evaluated, and entry points identified to promote democratic security sector governance in the West African region. (Seri

Book

Other Documents

Les Nouvelles du GRIP 1-2012

GRIP's Newsletter.

Other Document