For 50 years now, the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) has grouped the world’s main donors, defining and monitoring global standards in key areas of development. The DAC is a unique forum for sharing views and exchanging lessons and has gained a reputation for neutrality and high-quality work. Increasingly, the DAC looks to address pressing development challenges such as climate change, conflict and fragility, and more open and fair trade.
A regional seminar was organised in Minsk by the OSCE Secretariat in co-operation with the host country Belarus and the donors of the project, Switzerland and Austria.This project has been coordinated with Operations Division and will be implemented by LAD.
The Code of Conduct on Politico-Military Aspects of Security, adopted in 1994, is one of the main normative documents in the OSCE politico-military dimension. Through the Code of Conduct the participating States, inter alia, reaffirm the Helsinki Final Act and agree to apply the principles of democracy and rule of law to the national security policies and doctrines. In 2008, the OSCE Forum for Security Co-operation adopted FSC Decision 01/08 to promote awareness raising and outreach of the Code of Conduct.
This three-day seminar brought together representatives from Belarus, Moldova, the Russian Federation, Poland and Ukraine, as well as, Baltic Countries. Other OSCE participating States were invited as observers. The participants included representatives of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Defence, Interior and Justice, in addition to Parliamentarians and senior military, police and national security service personnel. Also attending were a number of experts from international research institutes, donor countries and the OSCE Secretariat.
ISSAT was requested to support the OECD INCAF Secretariat’s project to develop operational advice on how challenges in respect of ownership, programme management, monitoring, and results definition could be better addressed in security and justice engagements by using a “process approach”. Such advice needs to show senior international decision makers how “domestic” imperatives (political and organizational) can be combined with the requirements for effective engagement in long and uncertain transformational security and justice change processes.
As part of this project ISSAT was requested to review the EU’s ‘Programa de Apoyo a la Reforma de la Justicia’ (PARJ) programme and the USAID’s Programme Against Violence and Impunity (PAVI) to look at concrete options to improve security and justice programming.
(1) The CAR government agreed to hold a national consultation on SSR. UNDP was providing support to the national committee tasked with planning the consultation and asked the ISSAT to support their efforts. The ToRs for ISSAT support included to :
- Provide assistance with preparing the methodology for the national consultation.
- Provide input into key documents that will be used as part of the consultation.
- Provide assistance with development of the 'road map' from the consultation to the translation of the outcomes into concrete activities, such as an in-depth assessment and eventually in to clear reforms strategies.
(2) In support of this process and as part of their series of in-country consultation on the SSR handbook, the OECD held a consultation in Bangui for both the international community and the committee planning the National Consultation. The OECD DAC asked that the ISSAT join and lead the facilitation team for this exercise.
Policy and Research Papers
This study provides groundbreaking analysis of the challenges faced in security and justice service delivery. More importantly, it proposes an innovative solution for development agencies engaging in supporting security and justice development. A multi-layered approach to security and justice programmes is a methodology that is highly context specific, targeting donor assistance to those providers – state and non-state actors simultaneously – at the multiple points where actual day-to-day service delivery occurs. A multi-layered strategy recognises that unorthodox solutions and partnerships may be necessary to respond to the severe challenges of fragile states. The primary objective is to develop and strengthen the relationship between service providers (state and non-state) and the users of those services in the marketplaces where they work, in the neighbourhoods where they live and on the roads they travel, while fostering greater performance accountability.
State legitimacy matters because it provides the basis for rule by consent rather than by coercion. Lack of legitimacy is a major contributor to state fragility, because it undermines the processes of state-society bargaining that are central to building state capacity.
This publication makes an important contribution to ongoing work within the Development assistance committee of the OECD to improve understanding of statebuilding processes, and of how donors might work more effectively in fragile situations. it builds on and synthesises work commissioned by the governments of France, Norway and Germany.
The State’s Legitimacy in Fragile Situations explains why people’s ideas about what constitutes legitimate political authority are fundamentally different in formal, rules-based western states and in non-western states. it highlights the problems that arise when different concepts of legitimacy coexist and compete, and discusses ways in which it might be possible to reduce people’s sense of alienation from the formal state.
The publication argues that donors need to pay much more attention to aspects of legitimacy that derive from people’s shared beliefs and traditions, and how these play out in a specific political and social context. This is challenging, because legitimacy is extremely complex and changes over time. Moreover, donors can face difficult trade-offs and choices when local perceptions of legitimacy conflict with international norms. The State’s Legitimacy in Fragile Situations shows how external interventions can undermine state legitimacy in unforeseen ways, but it also points to some very practical steps that donors can take to increase the likelihood of constructive relations between state and society in fragile situations.
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The purpose of the handbook is to ensure that donor support to SSR programmes is both effective and sustainable. The OECD DAC Handbook on Security System Reform (SSR): Supporting Security and Justice provides guidance to operationalise the 2005 Guidance on Security System Reform and Governance and close the gap between policy and practice. It is targeted at development, security, rule of law and diplomatic personnel - practitioners in field missions and those working on policy and strategy issues at headquarters.