The DDPS is structured into five sectors: Defence, Civil Protection, Sports, armasuisse and the Federal Intelligence Service. The departmental sectors are directly accountable to the Head of Department.
The SPLA aims to develop itself from a guerilla force into a professional military after over 30 years of fighting. There are a number of components to this transformation including the Doctor John Garang Memorial Military Academy (DGMMA) which aims to training senior SPLA staff as well as senior civil servants. The Swiss Government is in a multi-year ToR to assist in the strategic guidance of developing the DGMMA. This mission focused on the development of the DGMMA curriculum.
In line with the Review ToRs the purpose was to: “ review progress and the state of the project to date, in order to make recommendations on further implementation modalities and approaches, with special emphasis on the uncertainties on the side of SPLA/DGMMA”.
The Review took place as Southern Sudan approached independence, with the intention of ensuring that the project adjusts to the new political realities, post-July 2011.
The ISSAT has been requested to provide support to an assessment mission to the DRC, which follows on from the fact-finding mission supported by ISSAT in June 2008. The aim of the assessment mission is to identify concrete proposals for possible project support by the Swiss Government in the areas Security Sector Reform:
- Military Justice System
- Training in leadership, democratic control of armed forces, int. humanitarian law, law of armed conflict, rules of engagement in domestic operations, etc. for FARDC military officers
The Swiss Federal Department of Defence, requested the ISSAT to assist in the mid-term review of the Swiss programme of support the SSR process in Southern Sudan.
The goal of the project was defined as followed: the promotion and implementation of norm and democratic control of armed forces, the intermediation of the principles of the International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and the law of armed conflict and further aspects for the consolidation of reliability and rule of law of the armed forces.
The Swiss SSR-Project Southern Sudan programme was nearing the end of Phase 1 of its implementation and was in the appropriate time to review progress, so as to make recommendations on whether to move to Phase 2 or to revise implementation modalities and approaches. Another reason for the review were uncertainties on the side of SPLA. There were, in effect, four main objectives for this review:
- To review the implementation of the Swiss Ministry of Defence support to SSR inSouthern Sudan, to identify lessons and concrete areas where this programme could be improved. The review was to look at both how the programme was structured, managed and resourced. It was to review the objectives as defined in the programme document and make recommendations and provide justification as to whether these objectives were to be revised.
- The second objective was to look forward and given the outcome above to discuss with project partners (national and international) on how to revise the implementation plan. Recommendations were also to be made on how to structure the programme, and its outputs, over the next 12 to 18 months. The legal framework has to be evaluated too (pending agreements with Khartoum and Juba).
- The third objective was to check the will and commitment of the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) and the SPLA for Security Sector Reform generally.
- The last objective was to assess the achievements of objectives from donors as well as recipient side.
The Swiss Federal Department of Defence requested ISSAT to assist in the redesign of their programme of support for the SSR process in Southern Sudan. This followed the agreement to implement the recommendations of the interim review of the programme undertaken earlier this year with ISSAT support.
The Swiss programme re-focused its project on two main areas of support: the provision of strategic advice on the strategy/development of the Dr Garang Memorial Military Academy (DGMMA) and the review of the curricula in relation to IHL, democratic control and civil-military relations. Support to these two areas of support were to take place in three steps, some of which depending on the circumstance on the ground could run in parallel or overlap:
- Phase 1: Provision of support to the institutional development of the DGMMA; including advising on the vision, mission and values of the training institution, together with supporting the development of proposals on its structure and management.
- Phase 2: In parallel to providing support to the review and where necessary the development of curricula in the three mains areas of IHL, democratic control of armed forces and civil-military relations; the Swiss team should be involved in providing training and mentoring to future DGMMA instructors.
- Phase 3: Once the DGMMA was operational at its new location, the Swiss team could work with the management of the DGMMA to develop a department/centre with a focus on democratic control, IHL and civil-military relations
The Swiss Department of Defence hosted a course on Whole-of-Government Security Sector Reform (SSR) Workshop from the 6 – 8 October 2009. The training course was carried out in partnership with ISSAT.
The course aims to develop capacity, knowledge and coherence in SSR, and to help participants to better understand the concept and evolution of SSR, including actors, concepts and principles, as well as develop the basic skills required to facilitate a “whole-of- government approach” to SSR
Aimed at a broad, Whole of Government participation, the Seminar included participants from different backgrounds (e.g. Justice, Defence, Foreign Affairs, Development Agencies).
Some spaces on the course are available for other ISSAT members who may wish to send personnel.
The Swiss Department of Defence hosted an Introductory Security Sector Reform (SSR) Training Course on the 7th till the 9th of June, and an SSR Train-the-Trainers course on the 9th till the 11th of June. The courses were carried out in partnership with the ISSAT.
Aimed at a broad, Whole of Government participation, the courses will include participants from different backgrounds (e.g. Justice, Defence, Foreign Affairs, and Development Agencies). Some spaces on the courses were made available for other ISSAT governing board members to send personnel.
The Level 1 introductory SSR Training Course is aimed at individuals who have recently taken on an SSR portfolio or who plan to work on SSR in the field or at Headquarters. Its main objective is to offer an overview of the key SSR policies, principles and actors.
The Train-the-Trainers SSR Workshop is aimed at individuals with a background as trainers and/or in SSR-related issues. Its main objective is to build individuals’ capacity to design and deliver high quality SSR training programmes and to foster awareness of different SSR-friendly training techniques.
The Swiss Federal Department of Defence requested ISSAT to continue its support to the redesign of their programme of support for the SSR process in Southern Sudan. This followed the agreement to implement the recommendations of the interim review of the programme undertaken in 2009 with ISSAT support.
Since the interim review in 2009, the Swiss programme refocused its project on two main areas of support:
- the provision of strategic advice on the strategy/development of the Dr Garang Memorial Military Academy (DGMMA) and
- the review of the curricula in relation to IHL, democratic control and civil-military relations.
As part of this support, a joint Swiss Armed Forces/ISSAT team travelled to Juba in late June to support the management of the Dr Garang Memorial Military Academy (DGMMA) in conducting a five day workshop to:
- Develop the DGMAA curricula
- Review the Action Plan (2009/2010) to see what commitments have been fulfilled
- Further develop the syllabus of DGMAA courses
The Level One SSR training was a two-and-a-half day course, aimed at practitioners engaged in SSR activities. Its main objective is to offer an overview of the key SSR policies, principles and actors. The course also dealt with the highly political nature of SSR, highlighted some of its key challenges on the ground and propose some solutions. Key topics covered include: introduction to SSR policies, principles and actors; SSR in different contexts; who’s who in the security sector; oversight and accountability; coordinating SSR programmes etc.
The training took place in STANS, Switzerland, in partnership with ISSAT. It targeted a broad, "Whole of Government" participation, the courses included participants from different backgrounds (e.g. Defence, Foreign Affairs, and Development Agencies), particularly middle management or desk-officer level with responsibilities on SSR issues.
To review progress made with regard to the Swiss SSR project in Southern Sudan. The Swiss project has two key goals:
- Training for instructors on IHL, methodology, management and SSR issues
- Advice for the development of a SPLA military academy.
ISSAT requested to be part of the review team, which also consisted of members of the Swiss Army and Security Policy. The assignment included conducting desk research and holding interviews with national and international stakeholders, including personnel in the field (Juba).
The objectives of the review were as follows:
- To review the implementation process of the Swiss projects and to draw lessons learnt for improvement;
- To evaluate the political commitment on the part of the recipient authorities;
- To assess if the objectives of donors and recipients have been met, whether the project should continue as planned and to draft recommendations on that basis;
- To discuss with counterparts the implementation of these recommendations;
- To assess the Swiss contributions in light of challenges faced and progress achieved on SSR in South Sudan
The Swiss Department of Defence hosted an SSR Train-the-Trainers course from 23-25 November 2011. The course was carried out in partnership with the ISSAT.
Aimed at a broad, Whole of Government participation, the course included participants from different backgrounds (e.g. Justice, Defence, Foreign Affairs, and Development Agencies). Some spaces on the courses were available for other ISSAT governing board members who wished to send personnel.
The 2½ days programme aimed at individuals with a background as trainers and/or in SSR-related issues. Its main objective was to build individuals’ capacity to design and deliver high quality SSR training programmes and to foster awareness of different SSR-friendly training techniques. Participants were given the opportunity, through hands-on activities, to develop their skills as SSR trainers. Topics that were dealt with were: the specificities of SSR training; planning and designing an SSR course; methodologies used in SSR training; preparing and delivering a session in an SSR course, etc.
The Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport requested ISSAT support for new SSR modules as part of the Swiss UN Military Observer Course (SUNMOC). ISSAT was invited to support this workshop. The objectives of this workshop were to:
- Provide an introduction and overview on SSR
- Develop some of the linkages between PSO and SSR
- Examine some of the practical issues around the concept of SSR
The target audience was a multinational group of military officers who were candidates for UN monitoring missions. Rank range was from lieutenant to lieutenant colonel. Countries participating include: Egypt, Bulgaria; Germany; Finland; France; Pakistan; Netherlands; Kyrgystan and Switzerland.
The Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport has requested ISSAT’s support to carry out an introductory training on peace support operations and SSR for the Peace Support Operations Training Centre (PSOTC) in Bosnia Herzegovina. This training is part of the Swiss Government’s 3-year progressive strategy to build PSOTC capacity to conduct SSR trainings. PSOTC trainers will be involved in designing and delivering the training in collaboration with ISSAT’s training team. It is hoped that PSOTC staff will be able to take over and conduct the SSR training at the end of the 3 year strategy. The training will bring together approximately 20 senior level participants essentially from the BiH armed forces, Ministry of foreign affairs and the Ministry of Security as well as civil society representatives including the Centre for Security Studies. Some participants from regional countries are also expected to attend the training.
The course aims to build both SSR knowledge and skills within the framework of Peace Support Operations. Through an interactive and practical training approach, this course will help participants to:
- Better understand the concept and evolution of SSR, including actors, concepts and principles;
- Understand the political nature of SSR and the challenges faced when ‘supporting’ SSR processes in post-conflict contexts;
- Understand synergies and complementarities between peace support operations and SSR;
- Identify the common challenges and opportunities for both PSO and SSR;
- Use concrete cases to build on lessons learned and apply concepts to practice;
- Develop the capacity of PSOTC to enable integration of SSR into PSOTC training curricula.
Switzerland was requested by the GRSS and the SPLA to support them in finding a good way of collaboration between the new Ministry of Defence and Veteran Affairs (MoDVA) and the SPLA. This first step in the project aims to find out how to proceed with this project. DDPS intends to support the DCAF process in South Sudan for the next 18 months. To make sure that Switzerland offers valuable and pertinent support, it will conduct an assessment of the current needs.
ISSAT was requested to support the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports in conducting a desk review of the current situation with regard to democratic control of armed forces in South Sudan, including identifying the international support being provided; and to help come up with a process to engage with the Government of the Republic of South Sudan (GRSS) on this issue with a view to developing, if appropriate, a Swiss Armed Forces programme on the democratic control of armed forces (DCAF).
The Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport, in cooperation with the Austrian Ministry of Defence, was organised an advanced training course on “Security Sector Reform (SSR)”, in Stans from 17-21 October 2011. The course was carried out in partnership with DCAF/ISSAT.
The main objective of this training was to provide participants with opportunities to learn about the key processes in SSR through a series of hands-on exercises in which they were exposed to many of the tools and techniques that SSR practitioners use on the ground. The course focused both on technical and political aspects of SSR and aimed at broadening both knowledge and skills.
The five-day training brought together approximately 25 participants from the Swiss government, as well as representatives from donor and recipient countries. The course included several modules covering topics such as 1. Concepts of SSR, 2. Context of SSR (e.g. local ownership, accountability & effectiveness, governance of the security sector), 3. Components of the security sector (e.g. Police reforms, rule of law, defence reforms), 4. SSR processes (e.g. assessments, evaluation), 5. Cross-cutting issues (e.g. gender, cultural awareness, civil society & non-state actors), and 6. Soft skills and tools (e.g. negotiation, coordination, stakeholder analysis).
This five-day training will bring together approximately 25 participants from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and the region, including military, police and civilian personnel. The course includes several modules covering topics such as the concept, context and components of SSR, cross-cutting issues, and soft skills. The Peace Support Operations Training Centre (PSOTC) will take the lead in the design and delivery of the course, with ISSAT mentoring the PSOTC team and providing some support in the delivery of the training.